2012年5月2日 星期三

Japan in transition /The invasion of China by the western world


Questia, a part of Gale, Cengage Learning. www.questia.com

Publication Information: Book Title: The Invasion of China by the Western World. Contributors: E. R. Hughes - author. Publisher: Macmillan. Place of Publication: New York. Publication Year: 1938. Page Number: *.

The invasion of China by the western world

Hughes, E. R. (Ernest Richard), 1883-1956
Book. English.
Published London : A. and C. Black 1937

Physical Description: xvi, 323, [1] p : fold. front., maps (part fold.) ; 23 cm
Other Number: ocm01283728
Series: The pioneer histories
Subject: United States Relations (general) with China. China Relations (general) with the United States. Europe Relations (general) with China. China Civilization. China Relations (general) with Europe
Added Entry: Western world, Invasion of China by the


Japan in transition

Emil Lederer , Emy Lederer-Seidler (Author)

  • Hardcover: 260 pages
  • Publisher: H. Milford, Oxford University Press; Not Stated edition (1938)

During his years in the United States he published two books, Japan in Transition, with Emy Lederer-Seidlar, his first wife, issued in 1938, 

Emil Lederer 在 Wikipedia 的介紹

Emil Lederer (22 July 1882, Pilsen (Plzeň)–29 May 1939, New York City) was a Bohemian-born German economist and sociologist. Purged from his position at Heidelberg University in 1933 for being Jewish, Lederer fled into exile. He helped establish the "University in Exile" at the New School in New York City.



[edit] Biography

Lederer was born in 1882 to a Jewish[1] merchant family. He studied law and national economy at Vienna University. Among others, his professors were Heinrich Lammasch, Karl Theodor von Inama-Sternegg, Franz von Juraschek, Carl Menger, Friedrich von Wieser, Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk and Eugen von Philippovich, while Ludwig von Mises, Joseph Schumpeter, Felix Somary, Otto Bauer and Rudolf Hilferding were among his fellow students.
In 1905, Lederer received Dr. iur. in Vienna, and in 1911 Dr. rer. pol. at Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich. The next year, he habilitated at Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg with his thesis "Die Privatangestellten in der modernen Wirtschaftsentwicklung".
In 1918, he was appointed assistant professor by Heidelberg University, but Lederer remained in Austria until 1920. In early 1919, he was appointed member of the German Socialisation Commission in Vienna, along with Hilferding and Schumpeter.
At Heidelberg University, Lederer became assistant professor for social politics in 1920, and a full professor in the same year. From 1923 to 1925 he held lectures as guest professor at Tokyo Imperial University. From 1923 to 1931, Lederer and Alfred Weber were directors of the Institute for Social- and State Sciences. In 1931, he succeeded Werner Sombart at the German Faculty for national economy and finance sciences at Humboldt University of Berlin.
As was the case with almost all so-called "Heidelberger economists", Lederer was suspended by the Nazis on 14 April 1933 according to the Gesetz zur Wiederherstellung des Berufsbeamtentums until a final decision would be made. This affected all activities in connection with his offices. The salary was to be paid fully in the mean time..[2] In addition, university members apparently had denunciated Lederer for being a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (since 1925) and for being "non-Aryan".

Lederer escaped to Japan, where he had lectured a decade earlier, afterwards coming to the USA, where (in 1933) he co-founded the "University in Exile" at The New School for Social Research in New York City, which would become the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science. Emil Lederer was its first Dean until his sudden death in 1939, in the aftermath of an operation.

[edit] Work

Lederer, who connected economics and sociology, was considered the most important supporter of interdisciplinary social sciences in Heidelberg.
His efforts as democratic socialist are reflected by his range of topics, including the theory of economy and class structure analysis. Lederer, who published the social democratic theory magazine "Die Neue Zeit", was influenced by Karl Marx and Joseph Schumpeter. He did not support an unregulated free market: he examined the inefficiencies of monopolies, and partially denounced the positive effects of technical progress according to his stagnation theorem.

[edit] Literary works

  • Die Veränderungen im Klassenaufbau während des Krieges, 1918
  • Die Soziologie der Gewalt, 1919
  • Grundzüge der ökonomischen Theorie, 1922
    • Aufriss der ökonomischen Theorie, 1931
  • Technischer Fortschritt und Arbeitslosigkeit, 1931
  • The state of the masses, 1939
從胡適的這篇書評 (評 Japan in transition /The invasion of China by the western world 兩書


1938 胡適的書評
The Westernization of China and Japan

Amerasia , Vol. 2, No. 5 (July 1938), pp. 243-247.

據胡頌平編著,《胡適之先生年譜長編初稿》,第 5 冊,頁 1631-1638 ,此文與 No.139 ,標題雖異,實則同是一文

 他Emil Lederer 的第二任太太 在1981年將其檔案贈與此大學

M. E. Grenander Department of Special Collections & Archives
University Libraries / University at Albany / State University of New York
1400 Washington Avenue / Albany, New York 12222 / (518) 437-3935

VOLUME: 1.0 cubic feet
ACQUISITION: All items in this manuscript group were donated to the University Libraries, M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives, in 1981 by Gertrud Lederer (Mrs. Emil Lederer).
ACCESS: Access to this record group is unrestricted.
COPYRIGHT: The researcher assumes full responsibility for conforming with the laws of copyright. Whenever possible, the M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives will provide information about copyright owners and other restrictions, but the legal determination ultimately rests with the researcher. Requests for permission to publish material from this collection should be discussed with the Head of Special Collections and Archives.


Biographical Sketch
Scope and content note
Box and Folder List

Emil Lederer Papers
Biographical Sketch

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Dr. Lederer was born July 22, 1882, in Pilsen, Austria. He was graduated from the Pilsen Gymnasium and went on to study at the University of Vienna, which Menger, Böhmm-Bawerk. and Wieser were making famous as the center of the marginal  utility school of economic theory. At the University of Berlin he specialized in law and economics. He took his doctorate in jurisprudence at Vienna and in political science at Munich.
In 1907-12 he was secretary of the Netherland-Austrian Workingmen's Organization. in Vienna. In 1910 he became co-editor with Werner Sombart of the Archiv fuer Sozialwissienschaft, und Soziaipolitik   (a scientific periodical of the followers of Max Weber) of which he later became publisher.
In 1912 he was appointed an instructor in economics at the University of Heidelberg.  That same year his book, White Collar Workers in the Modern Economy, published: this was the first book to call attention to the problem of this special group of employees.
After World War I,  Lederer was a member of the Federal Socialization Commission in Germany and was chief of the Economic division of the Austrian State Commission for Socialization. He also practiced as a consulting economist and was economic counsel for leading trade union and Industrial organizations in Germany.
He became an associate professor at Heidelberg in 1918 and a full professor in 1922.  During this period he wrote many publications aiming, at a synthesis of the psychological theory of the Austrian School of  Böhm-Bawerk and the objective theory of Karl Marx,  drawing his training at Vienna, which was noted at that time for critical analysis of Marxian economics. His chief work, Principles of Economic Theory, was first Published in 1922.
From 1923 to 1925 he was a visiting professor at the University of Tokyo in Japan, where he made a study of the Japanese economy, and in 1931 be became Professor of Political Science in Berlin.
Lederer was the chief aide of Mr. Alvin Johnson director of the New School for Social Research, in the organization of the Graduate Faculty of Political and Social Science of the New School. They had become acquainted while Dr. Johnson was associate editor of  The Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences, when Dr. Lederer contributed many articles to that publication.
In the spring of 1933, when the Nazis began. dismissing internationally known scholars from the German universities, Dr. Johnson conceived the idea of establishing in New York a "university in exile" which would preserve German methods and contributions in a coherent unit.
He invited Dr. Lederer to New York that June and made arrangements with him, and Dr. Lederer returned to Europe and assembled the Émigré Faculty, which became a nucleus of a group of German, Austrian, Italian and Spanish scholars. Dr. lederer, who was Professor of Economics, was elected first dean of the Graduate Faculty and served for two years.
Dr. Lederer vas one of the important contributors to modern German economic theory.  He was a follower of Max Weber, and was himself the leader of an important school of economic thought combining orthodox theory with the Marxist-revisionist, orientation.
He was the author of more than a score of works in German, most of them centering, around three themes: the problems of the white collar workers, his synthesis of the Böhm-Baverk and Marxian systems of economic: theory, and his study of the Japanese economy.
During his years in the United States he published two books, Japan in Transition, with Emy Lederer-Seidlar, his first wife, issued in 1938, and Technical Progress and Unemployment, an extended study issued by the International Labor Office at Geneva. He also contributed many articles to Social Research, scholarly quarterly, of which he was an editor.
His first wife died a year after they came to this country. He was survived by his second wife, the former Frau Gertrud von Eckardt, whom he married in 1936, and two children of Mrs. Lederer by her first marriage, Ursula and Wolfgang von Eckardt; also a brother, a resident of Vienna, and a nephew, Dr. Walther Lederer, a member of the Faculty of the University of Delaware.

Emil Lederer Papers
Scope and content note

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The Collection consists of the papers of Emil Lederer, his wife Gertrud von Eckardt, and his, step-daughter, Ursula von Eckardt.
The manuscripts relating to Emil Lederer are mostly early documents (diplomas, teaching appointments - dating from 1901 on); passports; and a copy of his death certificate (1939). The photographs include those in his passports. The earliest correspondence (1922-23) relates to the appointment of Lederer as Professor of Economics at the Imperial University of Tokyo. Most of the official correspondence (in German) is from the Minister des Kultus and Unterrich, between 1929 and 1932, and concerns terms of teaching contracts. Original typescripts for the fifty-five articles in a Festscrift for Lederer are part of the Collection. Writings by Lederer are a clipping from 1931 Frankfruter Zeitung, and the proof and final version of his article, "Zum Methodenstreit in der Soziologie".
Items relating to Gertrud von Eckardt Lederer deal with her divorce, request for citizenship, and teaching at the New School. The bulk of the correspondence (1930-1964) is with the Frankfurt law firm of Robert M. W. Kempner and R. I. Levin regarding Mrs. Lederer's reparations application to the West German government. A few of her medical papers (1967-69) are included.
In the family papers are items regarding Ursula von Eckardt (daughter of Gertrud, step-daughter of Emil) such as report cards and letters regarding citizenship status.
In addition to the biographical information, the Collection is of use to researchers on the status of faculty in German universities in the 20s and early 30s, problems in obtaining United States citizenship, and legal aspects of war reparations.
Arrangement within the Festscrift is alphabetical by writers' names. Items in folders are arranged chronologically.

Emil Lederer Papers
Box and Folder List

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Box 1

1. a and b Festscrift (typewritten copies of separate, articles)
2. a. Photograph, black and white, Lederer at his desk
b. Meldungsbuch no. 15,633 (includes photograph of Emil Lederer) 5 October 1901,
c. Diploma, 26 July 1911
d. Diploma, 4 May 1903
e. Ausweis Karte 18 June 1915 Ausweisbuch 15 Feb 1915
g. Verwendungsbuch Kinderausweis (Ursula von Eckardt) 18 Mai 1936
i. Versicherungskarte 5 Jan 1935
j. Trauschein (photocopy)Announcement, with envelope, of death. of Robert Oboussier
1. Robert Oboussier (5 newspaper clippings)
m. [Report cards - Ursula von Eckardt]
n. Heimatschein 15 May 1934
o. Redaktions-Vertrag 31 Oktober 1921
3. Documents regarding education, teaching 1901-1934
4. Correspondence 1929-1933
Request of Gertrud Lederer for citizenship
Death certificate of Emil Lederer
Official correspondence to Emil Lederer, 1929-1933
5. Correspondence 1930-42
Divorce of Gertrud von Eckardt
Employment of G. Lederer
6. Correspondence to Gertrud Lederer 1952-1964
7. Correspondence between Emil Lederer and Imperial University of Tokyo regarding appointment as Professor of Economics 1922-1923
8. Financial statements - Gertrud Eckardt and New School 1949-1950
9. Medical Insurance and Medicare - Gertrud Lederer 1967-1969
10. Articles by E. Lederer
11. Check stubs, 1967-1971