2017年3月30日 星期四

Modernity’s Main Man: Is Anton Chekhov Still Relevant? 胡適譯《短篇小說》契訶夫 CHEKHOV的評價 Rothschild's Fiddle/A Work of Art




As Lisa Rosman pondered the relevance of Anton Chekhov, she tapped the…
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胡適翻譯過契訶夫的《一件美術品》Rothschild's Fiddle/A Work of Art 

胡適日記全集, 第 6卷 1930-33
1930.8.14 讀 1916 C. E Beechofer 翻譯的俄國戲劇  序中說"Chekov 不是大作家是新聞記者 作品沒永恆的重要  "
胡適嘆"蓋棺定論真不容易" 

hc按: 提到的兩部契訶夫的劇本 似乎都收入 Penguin   Classics 之 CHEKHOV: PLAYS (1954 起)

翻譯不容易,要抓住原著感人的關口更不容易,像是「最後一課」、「柏林之圍」、「梅呂裏」、「決鬥」、「二漁夫」、「殺父母的兒子」、「苦惱」、「米格兒」等,都是令人一唱三嘆的好小說。


短篇小說. 第一集 / 胡適譯
上海 : 亞東圖書館, 民14[1925] 八版


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短篇小說. 第一集 / 胡適譯 上海 : 亞東圖書館 , 民14[1925]
館藏地 索書號 條碼 狀態 說明
總圖5F楊雲萍文庫 (洽櫃臺調閱) 815.7 8189 1925 v.1 [鄰近架位館藏]

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出版項
臺北市 : 臺北書局, 民國45
稽核項
120面 ; 19公分.
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胡适译短篇小说
長沙市 : 岳麓書社, 1987 第1版
台大此書為外文系1993年買的


1919年出版的胡適譯《短篇小說》第一集﹐或可作為其嘗試漢語改革的一個標本。
該書共收十一篇小說和一篇論文。其中﹐用文言翻譯的小說有三篇﹐其餘是白話。論文的語言也是白話。這個比例﹐說明胡適當時已明顯傾向于白話寫作。
他在該書“譯者自序”中說﹐這些小說“不是一時譯的﹐所以有幾篇是用文言譯的﹐現在也來不及改譯了”。如果來得及﹐看來胡適是希望把他譯的短篇小說全部用白話文字提供給讀者。介紹外國名家的名著﹐如都德的《最後一課》﹑莫泊桑的《梅呂哀》﹑契訶夫的《一件美術品》﹑高爾基的《他的情人》﹐等等﹐另外加上論文來作解說。
胡 適說過﹐他極想提倡短篇小說。當時國內短篇小說大概尚未脫離初學階段﹐很多文人不大懂短篇小說是什麼樣子﹐該怎麼寫﹐似乎不夠長篇的小說就是短篇小說﹐而 且有個基本模式。諸如“某生﹐某處人﹐幼負異才……一日﹐游某園﹐遇一女郎﹐睨之﹐天人也……”﹐被胡適斥為“爛調小說”。
《奏樂的小孩》(Henry) Austin Dobson (1840-1921)

The child musician

He had played for his lordship's levee,
He had played for her ladyship's whim,
Till the poor little head was heavy,
And the poor little brain would swim.
And the face grew peaked and eerie,
And the large eyes strange and bright,
And they said -- too late -- "He is weary!
He shall rest for, at least, To-night!"
But at dawn, when the birds were waking,
As they watched in the silent room,
With the sound of a strained cord breaking,
A something snapped in the gloom.
'T was a string of his violoncello,
And they heard him stir in his bed:
-- "Make room for a tired little fellow, Kind God! --"
was the last that he said.


****

A Work of Art by Anton Chekhov
(1860-1904)


Sasha Smirnov, the only son of his mother, holding under his arm, something wrapped up in No. 223 of the Financial News, assumed a sentimental expression, and went into Dr. Koshelkov’s consultingroom.
“Ah, dear lad!” was how the doctor greeted him. “Well! how are we feeling? What good news have you for me?”
Sasha blinked, laid his hand on his heart and said in an agitated voice: “Mamma sends her greetings to you, Ivan Nikolaevitch, and told me to thank you.… I am the only son of my mother and you have saved my life…you have brought me through a dangerous illness and…we do not know how to thank you.”
“Nonsense, lad!” said the doctor, highly delighted. “I only did what anyone else would have done in my place.”
“I am the only son of my mother…we are poor people and cannot of course repay you, and.… we are quite ashamed, doctor, although, however, mamma and I…the only son of my mother, earnestly beg you to accept in token of our gratitude…this object, which…An object of great value, an antique bronze.… A rare work of art.”
“You shouldn’t!” said the doctor, frowning. “What’s this for!”
“No, please do not refuse,” Sasha went on muttering as he unpacked the parcel. “You will wound mamma and me by refusing.… It’s a fine thing…an antique bronze.… It was left us by my deceased father and we have kept it as a precious souvenir. My father used to buy antique bronzes and sell them to connoisseurs…Mamma and I keep on the business now.…”
Sasha undid the object and put it solemnly on the table. It was a not very tall candelabra of old bronze and artistic workmanship. It consisted of a group: on the pedestal stood two female figures in the costume of Eve and in attitudes for the description of which I have neither the courage nor the fitting temperament. The figures were smiling coquettishly and altogether looked as though, had it not been for the necessity of supporting the candlestick, they would have skipped off the pedestal and have indulged in an orgy such as is improper for the reader even to imagine.
Looking at the present, the doctor slowly scratched behind his ear, cleared his throat and blew his nose irresolutely.
“Yes, it certainly is a fine thing,” he muttered, “but…how shall I express it?…it’s…h’m…it’s not quite for family reading. It’s not simply decolleté but beyond anything, dash it all.…”
“How do you mean?”
“The serpent-tempter himself could not have invented anything worse.… Why, to put such a phantasmagoria on the table would be defiling the whole flat.”
“What a strange way of looking at art, doctor!” said Sasha, offended. “Why, it is an artistic thing, look at it! There is so much beauty and elegance that it fills one’s soul with a feeling of reverence and brings a lump into one’s throat! When one sees anything so beautiful one forgets everything earthly.… Only look, how much movement, what an atmosphere, what expression!”
“I understand all that very well, my dear boy,” the doctor interposed, “but you know I am a family man, my children run in here, ladies come in.”
“Of course if you look at it from the point of view of the crowd,” said Sasha, “then this exquisitely artistic work may appear in a certain light.… But, doctor, rise superior to the crowd, especially as you will wound mamma and me by refusing it. I am the only son of my mother, you have saved my life.… We are giving you the thing most precious to us and…and I only regret that I have not the pair to present to you.…”
“Thank you, my dear fellow, I am very grateful…Give my respects to your mother but really consider, my children run in here, ladies come.… However, let it remain! I see there’s no arguing with you.”
“And there is nothing to argue about,” said Sasha, relieved. “Put the candlestick here, by this vase. What a pity we have not the pair to it! It is a pity! Well, good-bye, doctor.”
After Sasha’s departure the doctor looked for a long time at the candelabra, scratched behind his ear and meditated.
“It’s a superb thing, there’s no denying it,” he thought, “and it would be a pity to throw it away.… But it’s impossible for me to keep it.… H’m!…Here’s a problem! To whom can I make a present of it, or to what charity can I give it?”
After long meditation he thought of his good friend, the lawyer Uhov, to whom he was indebted for the management of legal business.
“Excellent,” the doctor decided, “it would be awkward for him as a friend to take money from me, and it will be very suitable for me to present him with this. I will take him the devilish thing! Luckily he is a bachelor and easy-going.”
Without further procrastination the doctor put on his hat and coat, took the candelabra and went off to Uhov’s.
“How are you, friend!” he said, finding the lawyer at home. “I’ve come to see you…to thank you for your efforts.… You won’t take money so you must at least accept this thing here.… See, my dear fellow.… The thing is magnificent!”
On seeing the bronze the lawyer was moved to indescribable delight.
“What a specimen!” he chuckled. “Ah, deuce take it, to think of them imagining such a thing, the devils! Exquisite! Ravishing! Where did you get hold of such a delightful thing?”
After pouring out his ecstasies the lawyer looked timidly towards the door and said: “Only you must carry off your present, my boy.… I can’t take it.…”
“Why?” cried the doctor, disconcerted.
“Why…because my mother is here at times, my clients…besides I should be ashamed for my servants to see it.”
“Nonsense! Nonsense! Don’t you dare to refuse!” said the doctor, gesticulating. “It’s piggish of you! It’s a work of art!… What movement…what expression! I won’t even talk of it! You will offend me!”
“If one could plaster it over or stick on fig-leaves…”
But the doctor gesticulated more violently than before, and dashing out of the flat went home, glad that he had succeeded in getting the present off his hands.
When he had gone away the lawyer examined the candelabra, fingered it all over, and then, like the doctor, racked his brains over the question what to do with the present.
“It’s a fine thing,” he mused, “and it would be a pity to throw it away and improper to keep it. The very best thing would be to make a present of it to someone.… I know what! I’ll take it this evening to Shashkin, the comedian. The rascal is fond of such things, and by the way it is his benefit tonight.”
No sooner said than done. In the evening the candelabra, carefully wrapped up, was duly carried to Shashkin’s. The whole evening the comic actor’s dressing-room was besieged by men coming to admire the present; dressing-room was filled with the hum of enthusiasm and laughter like the neighing of horses. If one of the actresses approached the door and asked: “May I come in?” the comedian’s husky voice was heard at once: “No, no, my dear, I am not dressed!”
After the performance the comedian shrugged his shoulders, flung up his hands and said: “Well what am I to do with the horrid thing? Why, I live in a private flat! Actresses come and see me! It’s not a photograph that you can put in a drawer!”
“You had better sell it, sir,” the hairdresser who was disrobing the actor advised him. “There’s an old woman living about here who buys antique bronzes. Go and enquire for Madame Smirnov…everyone knows her.”
The actor followed his advice.… Two days later the doctor was sitting in his consulting-room, and with his finger to his brow was meditating on the acids of the bile. All at once the door opened and Sasha Smirnov flew into the room. He was smiling, beaming, and his whole figure was radiant with happiness. In his hands he held something wrapped up in newspaper.
“Doctor!” he began breathlessly, “imagine my delight! Happily for you we have succeeded in picking up the pair to your candelabra! Mamma is so happy.… I am the only son of my mother, you saved my life.…”
And Sasha, all of a tremor with gratitude, set the candelabra before the doctor. The doctor opened his mouth, tried to say something, but said nothing: he could not speak.



胡適譯 洛斯奇爾的提琴 收入《短篇小說》第二集 中的這篇 之前他讀過十幾次 越讀越覺得他可愛(1923年7月13)
胡適譯《短篇小說》第二集
這篇 幾年中 他讀過十幾次
不知道是否根據此文翻譯的

[Translated by Marian Fell, Russian Silhouettes: More Stories of Russian Life, copyright 1915, Charles Scribner's Sons. As reprinted in the Norton Critical Edition paperback, Anton Chekhov's Short Stories, selected and edited by Ralph E. Matlaw, New York: W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 0-393-09002-7, PZ3.C3985Cg 1979 [PG3456.A15] 891.7'3'3, 78-17052, pages 97-106. The translation of this story used in the Great Books discussion group I is superior, but is copyrighted by Ronald Hingley and so not given here.]

By Anton Chekhov


Rothschild's Fiddle


IT WAS  a tiny town, worse than a village, inhabited chiefly by old people who so seldom died that it was really vexatious.  Very few coffins were needed for the hospital and the jail; in a word, business was bad.  If Yakov Ivanov had been a maker of coffins in the county  town, he would probably have owned a house of his own by now, and would have been called Mr. Ivanov, but here in this little place he was simply called Yakov, and for some reason his nickname was Bronze.  He lived as poorly as any common peasant in a little old hut of one room, in which he and Martha, and the stove, and a double bed, and the coffins, and his joiner's bench, and all the necessities of housekeeping were stowed away. 
The coffins made by Yakov were serviceable and strong. For the peasants and townsfolk he made them to fit himself and never went wrong, for, although he was seventy years old, there was no man, not even in the prison, any taller or stouter than he was. For the gentry and for women he made them to measure, using an iron yardstick for the purpose. He was always very reluctant to take orders for children's coffins, and made them contemptuously without taking any measurements at all, always saying when he was paid for them:
"The fact is, I don't like to be bothered with trifles."
Beside what he received for his work as a joiner, he added a little to his income by playing the violin. There was a Jewish orchestra in the town that played for weddings, led by the tinsmith Moses Shakess, who took more than half of its earnings for himself. As Yakov played the fiddle extremely well, especially Russian songs, Shakess used sometimes to invite him to play in his orchestra for the sum of fifty kopeks a day, not including the presents he might receive from the guests. Whenever Bronze took his seat in the orchestra, the first thing that happened to him was that his face grew red, and the perspiration streamed from it, for the air was always hot, and reeking of garlic to the point of suffocation. Then his fiddle would begin to moan, and a double bass would croak hoarsely into his right ear, and a flute would weep into his left. This flute was played by a gaunt, red-bearded Jew with a network of red and blue veins on his face, who bore the name of a famous rich man, Rothschild. This confounded Jew always contrived to play even the merriest tunes sadly. For no obvious reason Yakov little by little began to conceive a feeling of hatred and contempt for all Jews, and especially for Rothschild. He quarrelled with him and abused him in ugly language, and once even tried to beat him, but Rothschild took offense at this, and cried with a fierce look:
"If I had not always respected you for your music, I should have thrown you out of the window long ago!"
Then he burst into tears. So after that Bronze was not often invited to play in the orchestra, and was only called upon in cases of dire necessity, when one of the Jews was missing.
Yakov was never in a good humor, because he always had to endure the most terrible losses. For instance, it was a sin to work on a Sunday or a holiday, and Monday was always a bad day, so in that way there were about two hundred days a year in which he was compelled to sit with his hands folded in his lap. That was a great loss to him. If any one in town had a wedding without music, or if Shakess did not ask him to play, there was another loss. The police inspector had lain ill with consumption for two years while Yakov impatiently waited for him to die, and then had gone to take a cure in the city and had died there, which of course had meant another loss of at least ten rubles, as the coffin would have been an expensive one lined with brocade.
The thought of his losses worried Yakov at night more than at any other time, so he used to lay his fiddle at his side on the bed, and when those worries came trooping into his brain he would touch the strings, and the fiddle would give out a sound in the darkness, and Yakov's heart would feel lighter.
Last year on the sixth of May, Martha suddenly fell ill. The old woman breathed with difficulty, staggered in her walk, and felt terribly thirsty. Nevertheless, she got up that morning, lit the stove, and even went for the water. When evening came she went to bed. Yakov played his fiddle all day. When it grew quite dark, because he had nothing better to do, he took the book in which he kept an account of his losses, and began adding up the total for the year. They amounted to more than a thousand rubles. He was so shaken by this discovery that he threw the counting board on the floor and trampled in under foot. Then he picked it up again and rattled it once more for a long time, heaving as he did so sighs both deep and long. His face grew purple, and perspiration dripped from his brow. He was thinking that if those thousand rubles he had lost had been in the bank then, he would have had at least forty rubles interest by the end of the year. So those forty rubles were still another loss! In a word, wherever he turned he found losses and nothing but losses.
"Yakov!" cried Martha unexpectedly, "I am dying!"
He looked round at his wife. Her face was flushed with fever and looked unusually joyful and bright. Bronze was troubled, for he had been accustomed to seeing her pale and timid and unhappy. It seemed to him that she was actually dead, and glad to have left this hut, and the coffins, and Yakov at last. She was staring at the ceiling, with her lips moving as if she saw her deliverer Death approaching and were whispering with him.
The dawn was just breaking and the eastern sky was glowing with a faint radiance. As he stared at the old woman it somehow seemed to Yakov that he had never once spoken a tender word to her or pitied her; that he had never thought of buying her a kerchief or of bringing her back some sweets from a wedding. On the contrary, he had shouted at her and abused her for his losses, and had shaken his fist at her. It was true he had never beaten her, but he had frightened her no less, and she had been paralyzed with fear every time he had scolded her. Yes, and he had not allowed her to drink tea because his losses were heavy enough as it was, so she had had to be content with hot water. Now he understood why her face looked so strangely happy, and horror overwhelmed him.
As soon as it was light he borrowed a horse from a neighbor and took Martha to the hospital. As there were not many patients, he had not to wait very long--only about three hours. To his great satisfaction it was not the doctor who was receiving the sick that day, but his assistant, Maxim Nikolaich, an old man of whom it was said that although he quarreled and drank, he knew more than the doctor did.
"Good morning, Your Honor," said Yakov leading his old woman into the office. "Excuse us for intruding upon you with our trifling affairs. As you see, this subject has fallen ill. My life's friend, if you will allow me to use the expression----"
Knitting his gray eyebrows and stroking his whiskers, the doctor's assistant fixed his eyes on the old woman. She was sitting all in a heap on a low stool, and with her thin, long-nosed face and her open mouth, she looked like a thirsty bird.
"Well, well-yes--" said the doctor slowly, heaving a sigh. "This is a case of influenza and possibly fever; there is typhoid in town. What's to be done? The old woman has lived her span of years, thank God. How old is she?"
"She lacks one year of being seventy, Your Honor."
"Well, well, she has lived long. There must come an end to everything."
"You are certainly right, Your Honor," said Yakov, smiling out of politeness. "And we thank you sincerely for your kindness, but allow me to suggest to you that even an insect dislikes to die!"
"Never mind if it does!" answered the doctor, as if the life or death of the old woman lay in his hands. "I'll tell you what you must do, my good man. Put a cold bandage around her head, and give her two of these powders a day. Now then, good-bye! Bonjour!"
Yakov saw by the expression on the doctor's face that it was too late now for powders. He realized clearly that Martha must die very soon, if not today, then tomorrow. He touched the doctor's elbow gently, blinked, and whispered:
"She ought to be cupped, doctor!"
"I haven't time, I haven't time, my good man. Take your old woman and go, in God's name. Good-bye."
"Please, please, cup her, doctor!" begged Yakov. "You know yourself that if she had a pain in her stomach, powders and drops would do her good, but she has a cold! The first thing to do when one catches cold is to let some blood, doctor!"
But the doctor had already sent for the next patient, and a woman leading a little boy came into the room.
"Go along, go along!" he cried to Yakov, frowning. "It's no use making a fuss!"
"Then at least put some leeches on her! Let me pray to God for you for the rest of my life!"
The doctor's temper flared up and he shouted:
"Don't say another word to me, blockhead!"
Yakov lost his temper, too, and flushed hotly, but he said nothing and, silently taking Martha's arm, led her out of the office. Only when they were once more seated in their wagon did he look fiercely and mockingly at the hospital and say:
"They're a pretty lot in there, they are! That doctor would have cupped a rich man, but he even begrudged a poor one a leech. The pig!"
When they returned to the hut, Martha stood for nearly ten minutes supporting herself by the stove. She felt that if she lay down Yakov would begin to talk to her about his losses, and would scold her for lying down and not wanting to work. Yakov contemplated her sadly, thinking that tomorrow was St. John the Baptist's day, and day after tomorrow was St. Nicholas the Wonder-Worker's day, and that the following day would be Sunday, and the day after that would be Monday, a bad day for work. So he would not be able to work for four days, and as Martha would probably die on one of these days, the coffin would have to be made at once. He took his iron yardstick in hand, went up to the old woman, and measured her. Then she lay down, and he crossed himself and went to work on the coffin.
When the task was completed Bronze put on his spectacles and wrote in his book:
"For 1 coffin for Martha Ivanov--2 rubles, 40 kopeks."
He sighed. All day the old woman lay silent with closed eyes, but toward evening, when the daylight began to fade, she suddenly called the old man to her side.
"Do you remember, Yakov?" she asked. "Do you remember how fifty years ago God gave us a little baby with curly golden hair? Do you remember how you and I used to sit on the bank of the river and sing songs under the willow tree?" Then with a bitter smile she added: "The baby died."
Yakov racked his brains, but for the life of him he could not recall the child or the willow tree.
"You are dreaming," he said.
The priest came and administered the Sacrament and Extreme Unction. Then Martha began muttering unintelligibly, and toward morning she died.
The neighboring old women washed her and dressed her, and laid her in her coffin. To avoid paying the deacon, Yakov read the psalms over her himself, and her grave cost him nothing as the watchman of the cemetery was his cousin. Four peasants carried the coffin to the grave, not for money but for love. The old women, the beggars, and two village idiots followed the body, and the people whom they passed on the way crossed themselves devoutly. Yakov was very glad that everything had passed off so nicely and decently and cheaply, without giving offense to any one. As he said farewell to Martha for the last time he touched the coffin with his hand and thought:
"That's a fine job!"
But walking homeward from the cemetery he was seized with great distress. He felt ill, his breath was burning hot, his legs grew weak, and he longed for a drink. Beside this, a thousand thoughts came crowding into his head. He remembered again that he had never once pitied Martha or said a tender word to her. The fifty years of their life together lay stretched far, far behind him, and somehow, during all that time, he had never once thought about her at all or noticed her more than if she had been a dog or a cat. And vet she had lit the stove every day, and had cooked and baked and fetched water and chopped wood, and when he had come home drunk from a wedding she had hung his fiddle reverently on a nail each time, and had silently put him to bed with a timid, anxious look on her face.
But here came Rothschild toward him, bowing and scraping and smiling.
"I have been looking for you, uncle!" he said. "Moses Shakess presents his compliments and wants you to go to him at once."
Yakov did not feel in a mood to do anything. He wanted to crv.
"Leave me alone!" he exclaimed, and walked on.
"Oh, how can you say that?" cried Rothschild, running beside him in alarm. "Moses will be very angry. He wants you to come at once!"
Yakov was disgusted by the panting of the Jew, by his blinking eves, and by the quantities of reddish freckles on his face. He looked with aversion at his long green coat and at the whole of his frail, delicate figure.
"What do you mean by pestering me, garlic?" he shouted. "Get away!"
The Jew grew angry and shouted back:
"Don't yell at me like that or I'll send you flying over that fence!"
"Get out of my sight!" bellowed Yakov, shaking his fist at him. "There's no living in the same town with mangy curs like you!"
Rothschild was petrified with terror. He sank to the ground and waved his hands over his head as if to protect himself from falling blows; then he jumped up and ran away as fast as his legs could carry him. As he ran he leaped and waved his arms, and his long, gaunt back could be seen quivering. The little boys were delighted at what had happened, and ran after him screaming: "Jew, Jew!" The dogs also joined barking in the chase. Somebody laughed and then whistled, at which the dogs barked louder and more vigorously than ever.
Then one of them must have bitten Rothschild, for a piteous, despairing scream rent the air.
Yakov walked across the common to the edge of the town without knowing where he was going, and the little boys shouted after him. "There goes old man Bronze! There goes old man Bronze!" He found himself by the river where the snipe were darting about with shrill cries, and the ducks were quacking and swimming to and fro. The sun was shining fiercely and the water was sparkling so brightly that it was painful to look at. Yakov struck into a path that led along the riverbank. lIe came to a stout, red-checked woman just leaving a bath-house. "Aha, you otter, you!" he thought. Not far from the bath-house some little boys were fishing for crabs with pieces of meat. When they saw Yakov they shouted mischievously: "Old man Bronze! Old man Bronze!" But there before him stood an ancient, spreading willow tree with a massive trunk, and a crow's nest among its branches. Suddenly there flashed across Yakov's memory with all the vividness of life a little child with golden curls, and the willow of which Martha had spoken. Yes, this was the same tree, so green and peaceful and sad. How old it had grown, poor thing!
He sat down at its foot and thought of the past. On the opposite shore, where that meadow now was, there had stood in those days a wood of tall birch-trees, and that bare hill on the horizon yonder had been covered with the blue bloom of an ancient pine forest. And sailboats had plied the river then, but now all lay smooth and still, and only one little birch-tree was left on the opposite bank, a graceful young thing, like a girl, while on the river there swam only ducks and geese. It was hard to believe that boats had once sailed there. It even seemed to him that there were fewer geese now than there had been. Yakov shut his eyes, and one by one white geese came flying toward him, an endless flock.
He was puzzled to know why he had never once been down to the river during the last forty or fifty years of his life, or, if he had been there, why he had never paid any attention to it. The stream was fine and large; he might have fished in it and sold the fish to the merchants and the government officials and the restaurant-keeper at the station, and put the money in the bank. He might have rowed in a boat from farm to farm and played on his fiddle. People of every rank would have paid him money to hear him. He might have tried to run a boat on the river, that would have been better than making coffins. Finally, he might have raised geese, and killed them, and sent them to Moscow in the winter. Why, the down alone would have brought him ten rubles a year! But he had missed all these chances and had done nothing. What losses were here! Ah, what terrible losses! And, oh, if he had only done all these things at the same time! If he had only fished, and played the fiddle, and sailed a boat, and raised geese, what capital he would have had by now! But he had not even dreamed of doing all this; his life had gone by without profit or pleasure. It had been lost for nothing, not even a trifle. Nothing was left ahead; behind lay only losses, and such terrible losses that he shuddered to think of them. But why shouldn't men live so as to avoid all this waste and these losses? Why, oh why, should those birch and pine forests have been felled? Why should those meadows be lying so deserted? Why did people always do exactly what they ought not to do? Why had Yakov scolded and growled and clenched his fists and hurt his wife's feelings all his life? Why, oh why, had he frightened and insulted that Jew just now? Why did people in general always interfere with one another? What losses resulted from this! What terrible losses! If it were not for envy and anger they would get great profit from one another.
All that evening and night Yakov dreamed of the child, of the willow tree, of the fish and the geese, of Martha with her profile like a thirsty bird, and of Rothschild's pale, piteous mien. Queer faces seemed to be moving toward him from all sides, muttering to him about his losses. He tossed from side to side, and got up five times during the night to play his fiddle.
He rose with difficulty next morning, and walked to the hospital. The same doctor's assistant ordered him to put cold bandages on his head, and gave him little powders to take; by his expression and the tone of his voice Yakov knew that the state of affairs was bad, and that no powders could save him now. As he walked home he reflected that one good thing would result from his death: he would no longer have to eat and drink and pay taxes, neither would he offend people anymore, and, as a man lies in his grave for hundreds of thousands of years, the sum of his profits would be immense. So, life to a man was a loss--death, a gain. Of course this reasoning was correct, but it was also distressingly sad. Why should the world be so strangely arranged that a man's life, which was only given to him once, must pass without profit?
He was not sorry then that he was going to die, but when he reached home, and saw his fiddle, his heart ached, and he regretted it deeply. He would not be able to take his fiddle with him into the grave, and now it would be left an orphan, and its fate would be that of the birch grove and the pine forest. Everything in the world had been lost, and would always be lost for ever. Yakov went out and sat on the threshold of his hut, clasping his fiddle to his breast. And as he thought of his life so full of waste and losses he began playing without knowing how piteous and touching his music was, and the tears streamed down his cheeks. And the more he thought the more sorrowfully sang his violin.
The latch clicked and Rothschild came in through the garden gate, and walked boldly halfway across the garden. Then he suddenly stopped, crouched down, and, probably from fear, began making signs with his hands as if he were trying to show on his fingers what time it was.
"Come on, don't be afraid!" said Yakov gently, beckoning him to advance. "Come on!"
With many mistrustful and fearful glances Rothschild went slowly up to Yakov, and stopped about two yards away.
"Please don't beat me!" he said with a ducking bow. "Moses Shakess has sent me to you again. 'Don't be afraid,' he said, 'go to Yakov,' says he, 'and say that we can't possibly manage without him.' There is a wedding next Thursday. Ye-es sir. Mr. Shapovalov is marrying his daughter to a very fine man. It will be an expensive wedding, ai, ai!" added the Jew with a wink.
"I can't go" said Yakov breathing hard. "I'm ill, brother."
And he began to play again, and the tears gushed out of his eyes over his fiddle. Rothschild listened intently with his head turned away and his arms folded on his breast. The startled, irresolute look on his face gradually gave way to one of suffering and grief. He cast up his eyes as if in an ecstasy of agony and murmured: "Okh-okh!" And the tears began to trickle slowly down his cheeks, and to drip over his green coat.
All day Yakov lay and suffered. When the priest came in the evening to administer the Sacrament he asked him if he could not think of any particular sin.
Struggling with his fading memories, Yakov recalled once more Martha's sad face, and the despairing cry of the Jew when the dog had bitten him. He murmured almost inaudibly:
"Give my fiddle to Rothschild."
''It shall be done," answered the priest.
So it happened that everyone in the little town began asking:
"Where did Rothschild get that good fiddle? Did he buy it or steal it or get it out of a pawnshop?"
Rothschild has long since abandoned his flute, and now only plays on the violin. The same mournful notes flow from under his bow that used to come from his flute, and when he tries to repeat what Yakov played as he sat on the threshold of his hut, the result is an air so plaintive and sad that everyone who hears him weeps, and he himself at last raises his eyes and murmurs: "Okh-okh!" And this new song has so delighted the town that the merchants and government officials vie with each other in getting Rothschild to come to their houses, and sometimes make him play it ten times in succession.





2017年3月26日 星期日

胡適《許怡蓀傳》(1919)《嘗試集 許怡蓀》《胡許通信集》2016/《胡适许怡荪通信集》2017



宋廣波,《胡許通信集》序言, 2016.6

 http://jds.cass.cn/Item/32124.aspx
宋廣波,<研究胡適生平和思想的重要材料--介紹新發現的《胡許通信集》>

许怡荪(1889-1919,名棣常,原号绍南,绩溪人)是胡适的一位重要知己,对胡适的成长、早年志业均产生过深刻影响。1919年许氏过世后,胡适曾将胡、许通信整理成册,[1]并以此为基础,撰成《许怡荪传》。稍后,胡适又打算将胡、许通信合刊。至晚在1924年8月,他们共同的朋友、时服务于亚东图书馆的章希吕,已将这些信标点完毕,并就有关内容的处理、署名等问题与胡适商酌。[2]1933年,章氏受亚东图书馆委托,再度为此事与胡适商洽。[3]但不知何故,出版事终未果,甚至原件亦下落不明。2013年,有胡适亲笔批注的《胡许通信集》手抄件被收藏家梁勤峰先生购得。承杨永平先生不弃,将该集之影印本提供给笔者研究。
JDS.CASS.CN

~~~~
胡适许怡荪通信集》,作者:胡适著梁勤峰杨永平整理,出版社:上海人民出版社,2017






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許怡蓀  ( 1889-1919)

《嘗試集》含二篇與許怡蓀相關的詩:

朋友篇(寄怡蓀、經農)1917.6.1


許怡蓀 1920


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許怡蓀傳  1919  收入胡適文存一》

胡適

  我的朋友許怡蓀死了!他死的時候是中華民國八年三月二十二夜七點半鐘。死的前十幾天,他看見報紙上說我幾個朋友因為新舊思潮的事被政府驅逐出北京大學。他不知那是謠言,一日裏寫了兩封快信給我,勸我們“切不必因此灰心,也不必因此憤慨”(35)。他又說“無論如何,總望不必憤慨,仍以冷靜的態度處之,……所謂經一回的失敗,長一回的見識”(35第二信)。這就是怡蓀最末一次的信。到了317,他就有病。起初他自己還說是感冒,竟不曾請醫生診看;直到二十一夜,他覺得病不輕,方才用電話告知幾個同鄉。明天他們來時,怡蓀的呼吸已短促,不很能說話。河海工程學校的人把他送到日本醫院,醫院中人說這是流行的時症轉成肺炎;他的脈息都沒有了,醫生不肯收留。抬回之後,校長許肇南先生請有名的中醫來,也是這樣說,不肯開方。許先生再三求他,他才開了四味藥,藥還沒煎好,恰蓀的氣已絕了!
  怡蓀是一個最忠厚,最誠懇的好人,不幸死的這樣早!. .這樣可慘!我同怡蓀做了十幾年的朋友,很知道他的為人,很知道他一生學問思想的變遷進步。我覺得他的一生,處處都可以使人恭敬,都可以給我們做—個模範,因此我把他給朋友的許多書倍作材料,寫成這篇傳。



  怡蓀名棣常,從前號紹南,後來才改做怡蓀。他是安徽績溪十五都磡頭的人。先進績溪仁裏的思誠學堂,畢業之後,和他的同學程干?豐、胡祖烈、程敷模、程幹誠等人同來上海求學。他那幾位同學都進了吳淞復旦公學,只有怡蓀願進中國公學。那時我住在校外,他便和我同居。後來中國公學解散,同學組織中國新公學,怡蓀也在內,和我同住競業旬報館。後來怡蓀轉入復旦公學,不久他的父親死了(庚戌),他是長子,擔負很重,不能不往來照應家事店事,所以他決計暫時不進學校,改作自修工夫,可以自由來往。決計之後,他搬出復旦,到上海和我同住。庚戌五月,怡蓀回浙江孝豐,一一他家有店在孝豐,一一- ·我也去北京應賠款留學官費的考試。我們兩人從此一別,七個足年不曾相見。我到美國以後,怡蓀和我的朋友鄭仲誠同到西湖住白雲庵,關門讀國學舊書,帶著自修一點英文(庚戌十一月十七日信)。明年辛亥,我們的朋友程幹?豐(樂亭)病死。怡蓀和他最好,心裏非常悲痛,來信有“日來居則如有所失,出則不知所之,念之心輒憤然而淚下,蓋六載恩情,其反動力自應如是”(辛亥四月十一日信)。那年五月怡蓀考進浙江法官養成所,他的意思是想“稍攻國法私法及國際法,期於內政外交可以洞曉;且將來無論如何立身,皆須稍明法理,故不得不求之耳”。(辛亥五月二十 日信)但是那學堂辦得很不滿他的意,所以辛亥革命之後,他就不進去了。他來信說,“讀律之攀,去歲曾實行之,今年又複舍去,蓋因校中組織未善,徒襲取東夷皮相;……人品甚雜,篷僚戚施之態,心素惡之,故甚不能側身其間以重違吾之本心也”(民國元年十月三十日信)。

  那一年怡蓀仍舊在西湖讀書。民國二年他決意到日本留學,四月到東京進明治大學的法科,五月來信說:“......君既去國,樂亭云亡=。此時孤旅之跡,若迷若惘,蓬轉東西,而終無所棲泊。本擬屏跡幽遐,稍事根底學問,然非性之所近.......恐于將來為己為人,一無所可。....... 去歲以來,思之重思之,意擬負笈東瀛,一習拯物之學。然因經濟困難,尚未自決。嗣得足下第二手書,慰勉有加,欲使膏肓沉沒,複起為人,吾何幸而得此於足下!......遂於陰曆正月間馳赴苕上,料理一切,期於必行。”(二年五月十七日信)他到日本後不久第二次革命起事,匯款不通,他決計回國,臨走時他寫長函寄我,中有一段,我最佩服。他說:“自古泯棼之會,滄海橫流,定危扶傾,宜有所托。寄斯任者,必在修學立志之士,今既氣運已成,亂象日著,雖有賢者不能為力。于此之時,若舉國之士盡入漩渦,隨波出沒,則不但國亡無日,亦且萬劫不復矣。在昔東漢之末,黃巾盜起,中原鼎沸,諸葛武侯高臥隆中,心不為動。豈有鞠躬盡瘁死而後已之人而能忘情國家者乎?誠以亂茲方寸於事無益耳。丁此亂離,敢唯足下致意焉。”

  這封信寄後,因道路不平靜,他竟不能回國那時東京有一班人發起一個孔教分會,怡蓀也在內。他是一個熱心救國的人,那時眼見國中大亂,心裏總想尋一個根本救國方法;他認定孔教可以救國,又誤認那班孔教會的人都是愛國的志士,故加入他們的團體。他那時對於那班反對孔教會的人,很不滿意,來信有“無奈東京留學界中,大半趨奉異說,習氣已深,難與適道”的話(同上)。這時代的怡蓀完全是一個主張復古的人。他來信有論孔教會議決“群經並重”一段,說“以余之意,須側重三禮。蓋吾國三代之時,以禮治國,故經國之要盡在三禮。近日東西各國每以法律完備自多,豈知吾國數千年前已有戚儀三百,禮儀三千,以禮治國,精審完美,必不讓於今日所謂法治國也。且一般人多主張以孔子為宗教家。既認為宗教,則於方式亦不可不講。冠婚喪祭等事,宜複于古,方為有當耳”(同上)。我回信對於這主張,很不贊成。明年(民國三年)恰蓀寫了一封楷書六千字的長信同我辯論,到了這時候,怡蓀已經看破孔教會一班人的卑劣手段,故來信有云:“近日之孔教會不脫政黨窠臼,所謂提倡道德挽回人心之事,殆未夢見也。此殊非初心所料及!......尊崇孔子而有今日之孔教會,其猶孔子所謂死不若速朽之為愈也!”(三年四月一日信)怡蓀本來已經搬進孔教會事務所裏,替他們籌成立會和辦“大成節”的慶祝會的事,很熱心的。後來因為看出那班“孔教徒”的真相,所以不久就搬出來,住辰實館(二年十一月三日信)。但是他這時候仍舊深信真孔教可以救國,不過他的孔教觀念已經不是陳煥章一流人的孔教觀念了。他那封六千字的長信裏,說他提倡孔教有三條旨趣:“(一)洗發孔子之真精神,為革新之學說,以正人心;(二)保存東亞固有之社會制度,必須昌明孔孟學說,以為保障;(三)吾國古代學說如老、苟、管、墨,不出孔子範圍,皆可並行不背;頌言孔教,正猶振衣者之必提其領耳。”(三年四月十日信)

  這時候怡蓀所說“孔子之真精神”即是公羊家所說的“微言大義”。所以他那信裏說:“至於近世,人心陷溺已至於極,泯棼之禍,未知所屆。及今而倡孔教以正人心,使此後若有竊國者興,亦知所戒,則猶可以免於大亂也。"後來袁世凱用了種種卑污手段,想做皇帝。東京的孔教會和籌安會私造了許多假圖章,捏名發電“勸進”。恰蓀的希望從此一齊打破。所以後來來信說:“時局至此,欲涕無從。大力之人,負之狂走,其于正義民意,不稍顧恤。所謂‘道德'者,已被輕薄無餘矣!”(四年十二月二十七日信)

  又第二條所說“東亞固有之社會制度”,他的意思是專指家族制度。原信說:“挽近世衰道微,泰酉個人功利等學說盛行,外力膨脹,如水行地中,若不亟思保界,則東亞社會制度中堅之家族制,必為所沖決。此中關係甚巨,國性滅失,終必有受其敝者。此知微之士所不得不頌言孔教,夫豈得已哉?”(三年四月十日信)怡蓀這種觀念,後來也漸漸改變。最後的兩年,他已從家族制移到“人生自己”(七年十月二十三日寄高一涵信)。他後來不但不滿意於舊式的家族制,並且對於社會政治的組織也多不滿意。去年來信竟說“所謂社會制度,所謂政治組織,無一不為人類罪惡之源泉,而又無法跳出圈子,所以每一靜念,神智常為惘惘也”。(七年九月八日信)復古的怡蓀,此時已變成了社會革新家的怡蓀。

  至於第三條所說“老、苟、管、墨不出孔子範圍”的話,我當時極力同他辯論,後來他稍稍研究諸子學,主張也漸漸改變。我在美國的時候,要用俞樾的《讀公孫龍子),遂寫信請怡蓀替我尋一部《俞樓雜纂》。他因為買不到單行本子,所以到上野圖書館去替我抄了一部《讀公孫龍子》。我那時正在研究諸子學,作為博士論文。怡蓀屢次來信勸勉我;有一次信上說,“世言東西文明之糅合,將生第三種新文明。足下此舉將為之導線,不特增重祖國,將使世界發現光明”(五年三月十三日信)。這種地方不但可以見得怡蓀鼓舞朋友的熱心,並且可以見得他對於儒家與非儒家學說的態度變遷了。

  以上述怡蓀對於孔教的態度。那封六千字的信上半論孔教問題,下半論政治問題。怡蓀的政治思想前後共經過幾種根本的變遷。那封信裏所說可以代表他的基本觀念是“政治中心”的觀念。他說:“以余觀于吾國近數十年來之政局,政治之重點,亦常有所寄。蓋自湘鄉柄政以後,移於合肥。合肥將死,.......疏薦項城以代。項城起而承合肥之成局,故勢力根深蒂固,不崇朝而心腹布天下,歷? 曆世而愈大。...辛亥之際,失其重點,故常震撼不寧,其在民質未良之國,政治中心宜常寄於一部分之人,否則馴至於亂。再以今日時勢推之,其繼項城而起者,其必為段氏棋瑞乎?(三年四月十日信)這時代的怡蓀所主張的是一種變相的“獨頭政治”。他說“一國改進之事,不宜以頓,尤須自上發之”。(同上)他那時推測中國的將來,不出三條路子:“若天能挺生俊傑,如華盛頓其人者,使之能制一國之重,與以悠久歲月,別開一生面:此策之最上者也。其次若有人焉,就已成之時局而善扶掖之,取日本同一之步趨(適按此指政黨政治)。......至若今日之上下相激,終至以武力解決,......此則天下最不幸之事也。”(同上)

  怡蓀一生真能誠心愛國,處處把“救國”作前提,故凡他認為可以救國的方法,都是好的。如袁政府當時的惡辣政策,怡蓀也不根本否認。他說:“吾人之於政府,固常望其發奮有為,自脫于險,苟有利於吾國吾民者,犯眾難以為之,可也;能如諸葛武侯、克林威爾之公忱自矢,其心跡終可大白於天下,而吾人亦將謳歌之不暇,豈忍議其後乎?若計不出此,徒攬天下之威福以為一姓之尊榮,是則非吾人之所敢知矣。”(三年五月十八日信中載。錄他寄胡紹庭的信)可見怡蓀當時不滿意于袁政府,不過是為他的目的不在救國而在謀一姓的尊榮。至於嚴厲的政策和手段,他並不根本反對。他說,“總之,政治之事無絕對至善之標準,惟視其時之如何耳”(三年五月十八日信)。

  過了一年多,帝制正式實行,雲南、貴州的革命接著起來,民國五年帝制取消,不久袁世凱也死了。那時怡蓀對於國事稍有樂觀,來信說:“國事頃因陳(其美)斃于前,袁(世凱)殂於後,氣運已轉,國有生望。蓋陳死則南方暴烈惡徒無所依附,而孫中山之名譽可複。袁滅則官僚政治可期廓清。”(五年六月三十日信)那時怡蓀前兩年所推算的段祺瑞果然成了“政治的中心”。怡蓀來信說:“聞段之為人,悃幅無華,而節操不苟,雅有古大臣之風。倘國人悔禍,能始終信賴其為人,則戡亂有期,澄清可望。”(同上)可見那時怡蓀還是主張他的“政治中心”論。

  怡蓀在明治大學於民國五年夏間畢業。七月中他和高一涵看同行回國。那時段內閣已成立,閣員中很有幾個南方的名士。表面上很有希望,骨子裏還是黨爭很激烈,暗潮很利害。怡蓀回國住了一年,他的政治樂觀很受了一番打擊,於是他的政治思想遂從第一時代的“政洽中心”論變為第二時代的“領袖人才”論。他說,“國事未得大定,無知小人尚未厭亂,而有心君子真能愛國者,甚鮮其人。如今日現狀雖有良法美制,有用無體,何以自行?欲圖根本救濟,莫如結合國中優秀分子,樹為政治社會之中堅。如人正氣日旺,然後可保生命”。因此他希望他的朋友“搜集同志,組一學會,專于社會方面樹立基礎,或建言論,或辦學校,務為國家樹人之計”(六年一月二十四日寄一涵君信)。他又說:“今日第一大患在於人才太少。然人才本隨時而生,惜無領袖人物能組織團體,鍛煉濯磨,俾其如量發揮;徒令情勢渙散,雖有賢能亦不能轉移風氣。志行薄弱者,又常為風氣所轉移。. .是知吾國所最缺乏者,尚非一般人才,而在領袖人才也審矣。”(六年舊七月十日信)當第三次革命成功時,我在美洲寄信給怡蓀說,“這一次國民進步兩党的穩健派互相攜手,故能成倒袁的大功。以大勢看來,新政府裏面大概是進步黨的人居多數。我很盼望國民黨不要上臺,專力組織一個開明強健的在野黨,做政府的監督,使今日的‘穩健’不致流為明日的腐敗。"我這種推測完全錯了。倒袁以後,國民黨在內閣裏競居大多數,進步黨的重要人物都不曾上臺。後來黨見越鬧越激烈,鬧得後來督軍團干預政治,國會解散,黎元洪退職。張勳復辟的戲唱完之後,段祺瑞又上臺。這一次民黨勢力完全失敗。怡蓀回想我前一年的話,很希望民黨能組織一個有力的在野黨,監督政府(六年八月九日又九月二十日與高一涵信)。那時怡蓀的政治思想已有了根本改變,從前的“政治中心”論,已漸漸取消,故主張有一種監督政府的在野黨“抵衡其間,以期同入正軌”(六年九月二十日與一涵信)。

  但是那時因為國會的問題,南北更決裂,時局更木可收拾。怡蓀所抱的兩種希望,——領袖人才和強硬的在野黨,一 一都不能實現。民國六年秋天他屢次寫信給朋友,說天下的事“當大處著眼,小處下手”(六年舊七月十日信,又九月二十日與一涵信,又九月二十三日與我信)。那時安徽的政治,腐敗不堪,後來又有什麼“公益維持會”出現,專做把持選舉的事。我們一班朋友不願意讓他們過太容易的日子,總想至少有一種反對的表示,所以勸恰蓀出來競爭本縣的省議會的選舉。怡蓀起初不肯,到了七年五月,方才勉強答應了。他答應的信上說,“民國二年選舉的時候,足下寄手書,謂‘中國之事,患在一般好人不肯做事'云云,其言頗痛。與其畏難退縮,徒於事後歎息痛恨,何如此時勿計利害,出來奮鬥,反覺得為吾良心所安也”(七年五月二十日信)。這一次的選舉競爭,自然是公益維持會得勝,怡蓀幾乎弄到“拿辦”的罪名,還有他兩個同鄉因為反對公益維持會的手段,被縣知事詳辦在案。但是怡蓀因此也添了許多閱歷。他寫信給我說:“年來大多數的人,無一人不吞聲飲恨,只是有些要顧面子,有些沒有膽子,只得低頭忍耐,不敢鬧翻,卻總希望有人出來反對,......由此看來,所謂社會制度,所謂政治組織,無一不為人類罪惡之源泉。”(七年九月八日信)他又說:“最近以來,頭腦稍清晰的人,皆知政治本身已無解決方法,須求社會業進步,政治亦自然可上軌道。"(同上)

  這幾句話可以代表怡蓀的政治思想第三個時代。這時候,他完全承認政治的改良須從“社會事業”下手,和他五年前所說“一國改良之事,尤須自上發之”的主張,完全不相同了。他死之前一個月還有一封長信給我,同我論辦雜誌的事。他說:“辦雜誌本要覷定二三十年後的國民要有什麼思想,於是以少數的議論,去轉移那多數國民的思想。關係如何重要!雖是為二三十年後國民思想的前趨,須要放開眼界,偏重急進的一方面。. .政治可以暫避不談,對於社會各種問題,不可不提出討論。”(八年二月二十三日信》這個時代的怡蓀完全是一個社會革命家。可惜他的志願絲毫未能實現,就短命死了!以上述怡蓀政治思想的變遷。

  怡蓀於民國七年冬天,受我的朋友許肇南的聘,到南京河海工程學校教授國文。肇南在美國臨歸國的時候,問我知道國內有什麼人才,我對他說:“有兩個許少南。"一個就是肇南自己,一個就是怡蓀(怡蓀本名紹南)。後來兩個許少南競能在一塊做事,果然很相投。我今年路過南京,同他談了兩天,心裏很滿意。誰知這一次的談話竟成了我們最後的聚會呢?

  怡蓀是一個最富於血性的人。他待人的誠懇,存心的忠厚,做事的認真,朋友中真不容易尋出第二個。他同我做了十年的朋友,十年中他給我的信有十幾萬字,差不多個個都是楷書,從來不曾寫 個潦草的字。他寫給朋友的信,都是如此。只此一端已經不是現在的人所能做到。他處處用真誠待朋友,故他的朋友和他來往長久了,沒有一個不受他的感化的。即如我自己也不知得了他多少益處。己酉、庚戌兩年我在上海做了許多無意識的事,後來一次大醉,幾乎死了。那時幸有怡蓀極力勸我應留美考試,又幫我籌款做路費。我到美國之後,他給我的第一封信就說:“足下此行,問學之外,必須祓除舊染,砥礪廉隅,致力省察之功,修養之用。必如是持之有素,庶將來涉世,不至為習俗所靡,允為名父之子。”(庚戌十一月十七日信)自此以後,九年之中,幾乎沒有一封信裏沒有規勸我,勉勵我的話。我偶然說了一句可取的話,或做了一首可看的詩,他一定寫信來稱讚我,鼓勵我。我這十年的日記劄記,他都替我保存起來。我沒有回國的時候,他曉得我預備博士論文,沒有時間做文章,他就把我的《藏暉室劄記》節抄一部,送給《新青年》發表我回國以後看見他的小楷抄本,心裏慚愧這種隨手亂寫的劄記如何當得我的朋友費這許多精力來替我抄寫。但他這種鼓勵朋友的熱心,實在能使人感激奮發。我回國以後,他時時有信給栽,警告我“莫走錯路”,“舉措之宜,不可不慎”(六年舊七月初十日信),勸我“打定主意,認定路走,毋貪速效,勿急近功”(六年九月二十三日信)。愛謀生( Emerson)說得好:“朋友的交情把他的目的物當作神聖看待。要使他的朋友和他自己都變成神聖。”怡蓀待朋友,真能這樣做,他現在雖死了,但他的精神,他的影響,永永留在他的許多朋友的人格裏,思想裏,精神裏......將來間接又間接,傳到無窮,怡蓀是不會死的!
  
民國八年六月
  (原載1 9 1 981 5日《新中國》第1卷第4號)

2017年3月25日 星期六

胡適之先生的‘一本萬利’,永遠有利息在人間的哲學:林語堂、彭明敏、陳之藩......

 這篇忘了記胡先生對彭明敏(1923年8月15日-)的資助、提拔。我們四年前謁墓,彭先生的獻花已在。


2012.3.1胡適資助過林語堂、彭明敏、陳之藩、魯迅的三弟周建人等
林語堂去美國哈佛大學留學時,每月能得到40美圓的“半額獎學金”,他以為這是因為曾在清華教過書,是庚款的捐助。林語堂曾兩次得到以北京大學名義匯款的保證金,各1000銀圓;他回國之後,才從校長那裏知道——這原是胡適個人對他的資助!林語堂在《八十自敘》中寫道:

當然啦,我曾有胡適博士作保,和北京大學接觸過。……我曾兩度由他作保匯支一千大洋。不過胡適沒有向北京大學提款,而是自掏腰包資助我。我回國才知道這個秘密。我去找校長蔣夢麟,感謝他借支兩千大洋。蔣博士詫異地說:“什麽兩千大洋? 是胡適自掏腰包。”我才知道胡適真夠朋友!遂在年底前還清了
這類似的說法,可參考林語堂在【讀者文摘】寫"我最難忘的人物 胡適博士"  (1963年10月號)。
".....但是我門永遠記得胡先生對朋友的這份"無聲援助""



林語堂故居林語堂故居
[故居活動│胡適X林語堂🤝]
語堂曾說:沒有第二個中外名人可與胡適媲美
有人因趣味相投而結為摯友
也有人因性格互補而成為朋友
適之和語堂的友情可謂是兩者並存
從去偽飾、存忠誠的相處中,
他們透過真誠道出彼此間最真摯的友誼,
延續至五十五年後的今天
胡適X林語堂的友情故事
不只在胡適紀念館 Hu Shih Memorial Hall 看的到喔













此外,1921年魯迅的三弟、尚未成名的周建人,也是由胡適推薦去商務印書館,月薪60銀圓(合今人民幣2400元)。
再如,胡適曾借給青年學子陳之藩一張400美金的支票,資助他去美國留學。後來陳之藩匯款還給胡適並寫信致謝。胡適在1957年10月15日 回信說:

之藩兄,
謝謝你的Oct. 11的來信和支票。
其實你不應該這樣急於還此四百元。我借出的錢,從來不盼望收回,因為我知道我借出的錢總是‘一本萬利’,永遠有利息在人間的。
你報告我的學校情形,我聽了非常興奮。我二十歲時初讀新約,到"耶穌在山上看見大眾前來,他大感動,說' 收成是豐盛的可惜做工的人太少了。' "---我不覺掉下淚來。那時我想起論語裏,'士不可不弘毅,重而道遠。"那一段話馬太福音此段相似。
你所謂"第一次嘗到教書之樂"其實也是這樣的心理。是不是?......

(陳之藩回顧:“每讀這封信時,並不落淚,而是自己想洗個澡。因為我從來沒有過這種澄明的見解與這樣廣闊的心胸。”)

李敖年青時生胡適也曾資助過他。( 2004? 待查 )李敖來北京大學的時候,捐錢想給胡適立個銅像。李敖說:“你別看他總在笑,我想,胡適之是寂寞的。”

使美的時候 劉楷幫胡先生匯錢給某些文人
胡先生特別提醒要不傷對方知自尊



胡適
愛謀生 (EMERSON):" 朋友的交情把他的目的物當作神聖看待 要使他的朋友和她自己都變成神聖"

2017年3月19日 星期日

協和 、李宗恩(1894—1962)、美國洛克菲勒基金會、胡適。章詒和專文:貌似一樣憐才曲,句句都是斷腸聲


http://www.storm.mg/article/234809

章詒和專文:貌似一樣憐才曲,句句都是斷腸聲


章詒和 2017年03月19日 06:30 風傳媒


一九五六年十月三十日,李宗恩(右中背面站立者)聽取照顧孫中山最後時日的護士何芬(左四,正面中)講述中山先生在這間病房醫治的情況。





2012年9月22日,我應私人邀請參加李宗恩先生(1894—1962)誕辰120周年座談會。走進北京東單三條「協和」老樓會議室,我很吃驚:牆上無條幅,桌上無鮮花,室內沒有服務員,室外沒有簽到簿。靜悄悄的,乃至冷清。咋啦?座談會的規格低到無規格。唯一吸引人的地方是與會者,清一色銀髮老人,人人衣冠整潔,個個舉止得體。我掃了一眼,只認得蔣彥永先生。





他見我,即問:「『協和』請你了嗎?」


答:「我是受李家親屬之邀。」


又問:「你認識李宗恩?」





又答:「 我不認識,父母認識。李宗恩劃為『右派』,是因為父母的緣故。所以一定要來。」


會議開始,先播放視頻,內容是一位元記者的隨機採訪——把當下「協和」的頭頭腦腦,上上下下,都採訪到了。問的問題只有一個:「你知道李宗恩嗎?」


回答也只有一個:「不知道。」


我看過一本寫「協和」往事的書,洋洋灑灑數十萬言,涉及李宗恩的文字寥寥數語。顯然,這是一個被時代遺忘的人,也是被「協和」忽略的人。為什麼「忽略」、「遺忘」?因為他是舊社會協和醫學院第一個握有實權的華人院長[1],更因為他是1957年醫藥界最大的右派分子。


會議的主持人是現任美國洛克菲勒中華醫學基金會(Chinese Medical Board)主席,瑪麗・布朗・布拉克女士(Mary Brown Bullock),她從大洋彼岸飛抵北京,就是專程來主持這個紀念會,並做演講。盡人皆知,美國洛克菲勒基金會在中國的一個創舉,就是建立協和醫學院及其附屬醫院。1916年協和醫學院選址動工,1921年落成並正式命名。醫學界人士很清楚:在那個時代,美國約翰•霍普金斯大學醫學院代表著國際醫學最高水準,協和醫學院正是以約翰•霍普金斯大學醫學院為「藍本」,教學、臨床、科研三位一體,從總體架構到具體標準,一切向它看齊,模擬仿照過來的。北京協和醫學院(及其附屬醫院)是洛氏基金在20世紀上半葉對華(單項)援助出資最大、時間最長的項目。令人欣慰的是所有的援助與付出,都沒有白費。幾十年間,「協和」(即北京協和醫學院及其附屬醫院之簡稱)在中國開創了八年制臨床醫學教育、高等護理學教育之先河,在培養醫生,建設醫院以及醫學研究等方面成績斐然,很快成為亞洲醫學和研究方法的最高標準,對日本、印度的高等醫學院也都產生了不小的影響。太平洋戰爭爆發,「協和」被日軍佔領,受到嚴重破壞。戰爭剛結束,中國國民政府行政院長宋子文立即致函洛氏基金會,要求儘快恢復「協和」的一切工作和專案。當時的基金會董事長小約翰•洛克菲勒在回函中說:「協和醫學院的工作是我們皇冠上最明亮的鑽石,我們有最強烈的義務繼續支持中國的現代醫學。」





1921年9月北京協和醫院落成典禮後全體人員合影。(取自協和醫院官網)


在1946年基金會再派考察團赴華,根據需要由中華醫學基金會再撥款1000萬美元。由當時的「協和」董事長胡適任命李宗恩為協和醫學院院長。
家世


光緒二十年(1894)中秋(9月10日),一個男嬰降生在江蘇武進縣青果巷內一個士大夫家庭。祖父給剛剛出世的長子長孫起名「宗恩」。嬰兒的父親叫李祖年,恩科中進士二甲八名。高中後,被欽點翰林院庶吉士。


1902年,李祖年在益都(清州)做知縣,開辦了當地第一所新式小學。為了號召當地士紳把孩子送進新式小學,帶頭把李宗恩放在那裡受業。


1909年,李宗恩入上海震旦大學學法語,那年他16歲。


1911年,李祖年出任山西財政廳廳長。喪偶不久的他,決定讓18歲的兒子赴英國留學。李宗恩剪了辮子,上了海輪。對於留洋,他沒有一般年輕人的遠大抱負和熱烈憧憬,只是說:「十八歲時,我偶然地出了國。當時並未想到我為何出洋。到了英國,因為官費是指定給學醫的人,我就學了醫。及至學了醫也就安心讀書,安心做事;等到後來想到該回家的時候已經近三十歲了。」


1913年,李宗恩進入英國著名格拉斯哥大學醫學院。七年間的學習課程依次為:植物學, 動物學,物理,化學,解剖學,生理學,藥物治療,病理學,法醫,公共衛生學,外科,臨床外科,內科,內科實習,產科。保存至今的格拉斯哥大學檔案裡,注明李宗恩就讀期間獲臨床內科二等獎、年級第十三名。之後,他赴倫敦熱帶病學院,在Dr. Leiper的指導下工作,很快獲得熱帶病/公共衛生證書,還幸運地參加了英國皇家絲蟲病委員會赴西印度的熱帶病考察。


1923年,李宗恩在格拉斯哥格西部醫院(the Western Infirmary)做住院醫生,工作出色。一位醫生(Dr. Cathcart)談及對李宗恩的印象,說:「他非常有人格魅力,所有的人都很喜歡他。他工作上能吃苦而有責任心。」在英國,李宗恩興趣廣泛,和一些中國留學生一起創建了留英同學會。


30歲的時候,李宗恩覺得自己該回家了。去接他的兩個弟弟覺得大哥果真與眾不同,尤其是那副眼鏡,既無「腳」,也無「框」,鏡片是靠一個金屬夾子夾在鼻樑上的。在其攜帶書箱裡,除醫學方面的典籍文獻,還有英國文學作品以及探討社會問題的著作。李宗恩此番回國,還與感情問題相關。出國時他與表妹何晉訂婚,留學期間與一個英國女同學相愛。在父親家書「歸國完婚」的催促下,他考慮再三,向異國女子陳述了自己的家庭狀況與尷尬處境,終獲諒解。此後的數十年間,遠隔重洋的情誼並未中斷,始終隨身保留著英國女友的信件。


李宗恩先到達上海,而他要去的地方是北京,因為北京有個「協和」。他這樣說:「我不願依附家庭,希望脫離家庭而獨立。北京的『協和』是當時全國設備最充實的一個醫學校,我認為它適合我個人的志願和興趣……」


1927年初夏,李祖年突然去世,丟下續弦和三個孩子。李宗恩從北方趕回老家。辦完喪事,他建議繼母帶著年幼三個弟妹去北京與他同住。毅然決然地承擔起長子的責任,這給了新寡的繼母極大的安慰。


在「協和」從醫從教,李宗恩各方面表現非凡,專業出眾,且具備良好的管理能力。 當時的副院長狄瑞德醫生在備忘錄裡,這樣寫道:「我認為李醫生是內科中國醫生中最有前途的一位。他在臨床和研究方面表現出不同凡響的能力,我相信,他是那種不但在自己的專業上出類拔萃,而且可以影響而帶動其他人。我深知,在『協和』的年輕中國人裡,他是最值得鼓勵和支持的一位。」李宗恩從助教、講師、副教授擢升至襄教授。他以深廣的內科學識、豐富的臨床經驗和誨人不倦的責任感,贏得了學生們的敬佩。1937年,李宗恩由於「在臨床、教學、和研究方面出色的能力」,被中國醫學基金會任命為講師。


1937年7月,日軍炮轟宛平城。也就在7月的第一個星期,國民政府教育部王世傑部長邀請協和醫院的李宗恩、北平護士學校的楊崇瑞校長(協和醫院婦產科專家),武漢大學的湯佩松教授和在南京工作的朱章賡(教育部醫學教育委員會常務委員兼秘書、公共衛生專家)四人,一起討論,決定在武漢大學成立一個醫學院,並指派他們為籌備人。但因華北形勢動盪,會議草草結束,各自回原校分頭籌備。


「八一三」以後,抗戰全面展開。經淞滬血戰,上海淪陷,戰線隨之西移,抗戰形勢趨緊。李宗恩接到通知:教育部決定將正在籌備的武漢大學醫學院改建到更為安全的大西南,成立國立貴陽醫學院,以接納從華北及其他敵佔區退下的醫學院學生。該院的籌建仍由李、湯、楊、朱負責。11月19日,李宗恩離開北京。12月31日,教育部下達聘書,聘請這四位醫學專家為貴陽醫學院籌備委員,李宗恩為籌備委員會主任委員。

經過緊張籌備,1938年3月1日, 國立貴陽醫學院宣告成立,教育部正式聘任李宗恩為院長。校方順利地租賃了別墅、會館以及寺院,經過修繕,6月1日貴陽醫學院正式上課。自籌備委員會成立以來,在漢口、重慶、長沙、西安、貴陽五處設立招生處,共收容戰區退出的失學醫學生及護士助產士學生計三百餘人,他們來自三十餘所院校。學生們年級不同,學業參差不齊,故採取分班教學,實行類似協和的導師制。導師及受導學生的分配,在每學年開始後二周內由訓導處公佈,導師負責受導學生學習、生活之責。這種導師制十分有效,一直延續到1949年。一個學生曾這樣形容在貴醫的讀書生涯:「開辦之初,設備簡陋,沒有甚多的教室,而致解剖學在院子裡上課,把人體骨骼掛在樹枝上講演。一些教室也是臨時搭成的茅屋。下大雨的時候,教室寢室往往變成澤國,沒有自修室,在飯廳裡自修,每人發凳子一張,上實習,上自修,背著凳子到處跑。天晴的時候,還好,一逢下雨,泥濘三尺,真有『行不得也』之苦。一年級宿舍是在山上,離教室有半公里左右。晚間自修完了回去,不但要摸黑路,而且還怕土匪和野獸(山上常鬧豺狼和土匪)。解剖實習的骨骼不夠分配,學生常常跑到山上,挖取野墳的骨骼。在物質條件如此低劣之下,師長們誨人不倦,同學們埋頭苦學。當時幾乎全國知名的教授,均薈集在此,貴陽醫學院聲譽鵲起,遂有『小協和』之稱。」[4]


兩年後,「貴醫」的學生畢業了!1940年2月2日 首屆畢業典禮晚在敬思樓舉行,醫科第一屆畢業生二十六人,醫士職業科畢業生第一屆護士十六人、助產士十一人。典禮上,男著中山裝,女著旗袍。畢業生也是穿著整齊,或黑色中山裝,或白色制服。會場佈置莊嚴隆重,校門有松柏彩牌聳立,兩側書有楹聯:「畢業即始業,祝諸君鵬程萬里;新生繼舊生,看吾校異彩常留。」與會者有省主席、教育部代表、教育廳長、大夏大學校長、湘雅醫學院院長等。典禮在樂曲中開始,李宗恩致辭。他說——


「我熱誠的向諸位道賀。但是從我的職務上,以及對於諸位的私誼上,都感覺彼此相處的日子太短了。我對於諸位有無限的希望,在諸位畢業離校的時候,願意從自己的生活經驗中提出一些重要的心得來貢獻給諸位。


「我們無論求學、辦事,都必須有科學的態度。我對於科學態度的解釋,認為應該是避免主觀,注重客觀。主觀太強,理智容易給感情蒙蔽,會不知不覺的走入錯路。注重客觀就必須有冷靜的頭腦,才可以充分運用他的智慧來求學來辦事,才會有良好的成就,才會有不斷的進步。就是處世方面,也要有科學的態度,才能夠檢討自己,體諒他人。這種心平氣和認真做事生活的風格,實在是受過高等教育者應有的修養。


「求學辦事僅有科學的態度還是不夠,如果沒有一種動力,所謂成就與進步還是沒有把握的。這種動力必須有健全而有意義的精神生活的人才有。在西洋社會宗教信仰是人們健全精神的基礎。有人說,主義信仰也可以成為人們健全精神的基礎。我以為一個人能夠有一種固定的事業欲,也可以使他的精神生活達到健全而有意義的境地,因為有固定的事業欲的人必然是意志堅定的,必然能夠不惜犧牲為他的事業向前作艱苦的奮鬥,像有宗教信仰或者主義信仰的人一樣。這樣的人,他一定能夠從他的事業中得到滿足,得到他特有的樂趣,他活一天覺得有一天的意義,他的心境永遠是樂觀而且積極的……」


我反復閱讀這篇致辭,感慨良多。與其說他是在勉勵學子,不如講是在歸納自己——「無論求學,無論辦事,都必須有科學的態度」——李宗恩不正是這樣辦學的嗎?「心平氣和認真做事的生活風格」——李宗恩不正是這樣生活的嗎?「一個人能夠有一種固定的事業欲,也可以使他的精神生活達到健全而有意義的境地」——李宗恩不正是達到了這樣的境地嗎?最令我欽佩的是他的這種人生態度貫穿於生命之始終,即使在「反右」之後,「山巔秀木,摧杌為薪」。對一個不懂政治的人來說,當時內心渺茫惶惑可想而知,但他依舊恢恢然君子形貌。我覺得李宗恩的幾十年的醫學教育實踐,有如廣袤高原上的冬雪,綿長細密,無聲無息又盡心盡力。 

李宗恩令人欽佩的是他的人生態度貫穿於生命之始終,即使在「反右」之後,「山巔秀木,摧杌為薪」。對一個不懂政治的人來說,當時內心渺茫惶惑可想而知,但他依舊恢恢然君子形貌。(取自百度百科)


臨床是醫學院教學的重要組成。1941年,為了讓貴醫有臨床教育,李宗恩和楊濟時籌集了部分資金,在貴陽市陽明路兩廣會館,因陋就簡,設置十張病床,成立了貴陽醫學院附屬醫院,由楊濟時任院主任。而在此以前,學生的教學實習和臨床實習都有賴於省立醫院。醫學從來都是嚴謹刻板、乃至冰冷的,加之物質匱乏,生活艱苦,為消解學生日常生活裡的冗繁,乾枯與瑣碎,李宗恩居然組建了一支口琴隊!用節省下來的院長辦公的經費,在香港訂購了各型口琴。經過訓練,沒過多久,什麼《比翼鳥》、《雙鷲進行曲》、《漢宮秋月》等樂曲,都不在話下,還定期在貴陽市內公演和電臺播出,且成為貴陽最有名的口琴演奏隊。繼而他又建立了話劇隊、國劇隊。前者,為貴陽市捐獻慰勞籌款公演,自己還參與《叔叔的成功》等劇碼的演出。後者,為勞軍、賑災、募捐等義務也演出多次,劇碼包括《玉春堂》、《武家坡》等。風流盡顯,舊時代一個受教育充分的知識份子在文化上的深度以及個性之飽滿充盈,令人感佩。幾年下來,在西南邊陲,於荒僻之地,李宗恩等一流教授以血水奔流的方式,培養出合格的醫科學生,由是激發出人們在戰爭中拯救生命的熱望。化育人才,弦歌不輟。這所原本不為人知的貴陽醫學院,在硝煙中越發顯得崇高和厚重,引得燕京大學司徒雷登等人也來貴陽參觀。有如一條緩慢的水流因高壓而成為壯觀的噴泉,在戰爭陰暗縫隙中迸射出的一線奪目的光亮!


轉眼到了1944年的冬季,日軍節節西進,由廣西逼近黔省,貴陽一夕數驚。省政府命令各機構和市民疏散,「貴醫」決定遷往重慶歌樂山。沒有汽車等運載工具,長途跋涉只有徒步而行。李宗恩把自己僅有的黃包車,卸下兩隻輪盤,給同學們用來拖運行李。「在動身的那一天早晨(12月7日),師生齊集附屬醫院門前空地。天氣陰沉,寒峻的北風吹得房屋在戰慄,也吹去心頭的溫暖,大家有說不出來的悲涼與淒清。(李)院長在一個簡單的演說以後,哽咽著喉嚨,流著眼淚,顫抖著聲音說道:『我們來唱——唱一個校歌。』在場的人已是泣不成聲。」 [5] 師生們並不恐懼日本人的兇暴,也不考慮個人的安危全,之所以痛哭是惟恐這剛長成的貴醫因經不住狂風暴雨,而枯零凋萎。


在戰火中在遭遇苦難,在苦難中堅持不懈,國立貴陽醫學院以「永遠獨立」的風姿完整地保存下來。李宗恩儘管承受許多周折乃至誤解,但他懂得作為一個院長的第一意義,就是負擔起自己的責任。出色的業績,使他榮獲了中華民國政府頒發的「抗戰勝利勳章」。獲此勳章的,有國民黨高級數十位將領:何應欽,程潛,閻錫山,馮玉祥,李宗仁,白崇禧等。有八路軍三位將軍:朱德,彭德懷,葉劍英。


在此期間,朱家驊、王世傑二人以介紹人身份為李宗恩辦理了國民黨黨員手續。按照當時的規定,學校的校長、教務主任及訓導主任應是國民黨員。為了千辛萬苦辦起來的貴醫,李宗恩接受了這個事實。而萬萬沒有想到的是——此後二十年,在反復的政治歷史審查中,卻不得不一次次地面對這個「事實」。


抗戰結束,恢復協和的事宜立即提到日程上來。經費方面由美國資助;董事會是中美成員的組合;管理方面則明確要求一個全職中國院長,一個美國副院長,皆由協和董事會選出。中國院長候選人有四、五位。包括劉瑞恒,林可勝,張孝騫,李宗恩。1947年3月12日協和董事會在上海召開會議,選舉李宗恩為協和醫學院第一任中國院長,Dr. Alan Gregg 為副院長。


3月23日, 李宗恩電告胡適:「I feel unequal to the great task which the PUMC Trustees did me the honor to entrust to me. I beg you to give me one week to enable me to think over the matter carefully and to make arrangements for the Kweiyang Medical College affairs before I can make any final decision.」 (譯文:協和董事會的任命以及給予我的榮譽和信任使我感到力所不及。請允許我要求一個星期的時間給你最後答覆,讓我認真考慮如何安排貴陽醫學院的工作。)


3月31日,李宗恩給胡適電報,表示接受任命。時任擔任董事會主席的胡適對李宗恩的人品、學識和才幹,深信不疑。他在信中這樣寫道:「在你的領導下,我們相信,新協和將會像過去一樣,對中國的醫學教育做成重要貢獻。對此,你將有我們的信任和支持。」



編按:


李宗恩,中國熱帶病學醫學家及醫學教育家。1923年至1937年任職於北京協和醫學院;1937年秋開始,南渡籌辦貴陽醫學院,並於1938年6月成立後擔任院長職務。1947年5月北歸擔任協和醫學院的院長。


李宗恩在20、30年代主要研究寄生蟲病,尤其是絲蟲病、血吸蟲病、瘧疾和黑熱病。曾在華北、華中地區設立血吸蟲病及其他多發性熱帶病的病情觀察站,是為中國熱帶病學研究的創始人。1948年獲選為(中華民國)第一屆中央研究院院士。


中共建政後,他留任原職。1949年9月受中國科協推舉,擔任全國政協委員。1957年被打成「右派」,隨後被「放逐」到昆明,任職於昆明醫學院。1962年病逝於昆明。(資料來源:維基百科)