2014年2月10日 星期一

影印的《聊齋志異》《虞初新志》《花神》台灣商務的品管/ Historian of the Strange: Pu Songling and the Chinese Classical Tale

這本書幾乎可以在Google Books讀全文

Front Cover
Stanford University Press, 1997 - Literary Collections - 332 pages
This is the first book in English on the seventeenth-century Chinese masterpiece Liaozhai's Records of the Strange (Liaozhai zhiyi) by Pu Songling, a collection of nearly five hundred fantastic tales and anecdotes written in Classical Chinese.



's review
Jan 02, 13

bookshelves: 21st-century-non-fiction, zhiguai, pu-songling, chinese-history, chinese-literature
Read in March, 2009

This book is one of the best I've read in ages. While many many books have been written about Pu Songling in Chinese this is the first dedicated to his strange tales in English, (though many articles about his treatment of ghosts and fox spirits have been written). Zeitlin does a truly excellent job, first of outlining the history of strange tales, then placing this book in that context, tracing its development and then focusing on three specific aspects of the tales. The three aspects she focuses on are obsession, gender transformation and dreams. Areas not often discussed in relation to these stories. As such she offers and interesting and fresh insight into the work and I learnt an awful lot. I took so many notes, on almost every page there was an interesting fact or quote or insight. One of the themes that gets repeated throughout the book is the straddling of fiction non-fiction that is present within the book. Pu Songling combines historical people and events with fantastic occurrences so the line between where the fiction starts is blurred. This theme is taken up later in the book when it discusses how characters who originated in fiction become "real" in the minds of their readers, so much so that they are able to interact with them in dreams and the characters prove their existence. The blurring of fiction and reality was a common theme in Ming and Qing times. In the introduction Zeitlan starts out with a very good definition of the Chinese terms 异 yi (Different) 怪 guai (anomalous) 奇 qi (marvelous) and talks about how they are used to describe the fiction, and why she settles on the translation of strange (5). The first chapter traces the history of the book and Pu Songling. Zeitlin states how the standard edition is Zhang Youhe's annotated version which includes "prefaces, colophons, dedicatory verses, interlinear glosses, and interpretive commentaries and crowned with a new foreword and appendix" (15). This comes from the traditional Chinese literary criticism that was interactive as well as interpretative with people having discussions on the pages of the manuscript, "readers recorded their reactions all over the pages even between the lines" (15) and these commentaries were preserved. "The text became an ongoing dialogue not only between the author and his readers but also between generations of readers" (15). In many cases the commentary on a book is much longer than the original text. In the first chapter Zeitin traces the original commentaries and sees how they develop, by scholars who knew Pu Songling and were trying to promote his work, to those who were trying to promote a moral message within the work and justify it as literature to the third wave of interpretation. She compares the commentaries and introductions with other similar works produced at the time and themes within Ming and Qing literature and culture. As such it includes many titles and descriptions of other collections of strange tales. Zeitin then examines Pu Songling's own introduction to the collection in which he makes reference to the fact that the only ones who will truly understand his words will come after his death (51). Chapter two deals with obsession and is fascinating. It looks at the way collecting became an obsession and how it was praised and criticised. There is a great criticism of obsession by the woman writer Su Shi (68) saying there is no difference between obsession with objects and obsession with money. It is interesting that she was writing after the fall of the Song which saw the death of her husband and the destruction of their book collection. Clearly at such times things become less important. It is not surprising then that during the end of the Ming after a long period of stability there is an increase in obsession, one Zeitin describes as "the Late Ming Craze for Obsession (69). As Zhang Dai (1599-1684) stated "One cannot befriend a man without obsessions for he lacks deep emotion" (69). The specific story discussed in this chapter was about a man obsessed with a rock, a beautiful rock that was magical. The man gave up years of his life in order to keep the rock and it was still stolen repeatedly from him. In the end it was only when the rock was smashed (having destroyed itself) that it was buried with him and stayed with him. Here the rock was seen as rewarding the mans love and returning it. (Rather odd but it worked). The next story discussed is in the chapter Dislocations on gender. Zeitin says this story is not included in many modern versions because of it's subject matter. In this story a rather wanton husband and wife live next door to an old woman who has a young maid come and live with her. The maid is supposed to be good at giving women massages to relieve women problems, but insists the husband be not home. The husband lusts after the maid and has his wife arrange for him to get the maid into bed. The wife does this and the husband gets the maid into bed only to discover that she is in fact a man whose been ravishing women having learnt the art of dressing as a woman from (an actual real life) gangster. The man castrates the maid/boy and she lives the rest of her life as his concubine and serves his wife. As such he manages to avoid the beheading that the rest of the gang receives. There are so many interesting discussions on gender and gender transgressions in this chapter. Zeitin points out that here there is able to be a "happy ending" as by castrating the man his life is saved, and he is no longer a threat to the traditional gender roles, or to women's chastity. She discusses in great detail the different stories of men dressing as women and women dressing as men (As well as each transforming into the other gender). What is interesting is that women transforming into men is seen as something which is virtuous and done out of respect, filial piety and is largely praised. While the reverse is not true. One thing I thought was missing from this chapter was a discussion of the Buddhist versions of this, where gender is seen as an illusion and it is perfectly acceptable for men to change into women (see Guan Yin). But still this was a small oversight in a most excellent chapter. I marked down many many references within this part as it was simply fantastic. The next section looked at dreams. Here the difference between dreams and reality was explored. There was a very touching story about a man who fell in love with one of the fox spirits in the collection, whose obsession led a fox spirit to give him her daughter a lover, who in turn was immortalized in another of Pu Songling's tales. The difference between reality and dreams was blurred. In this chapter there was also a great discussion on the difference between fiction and reality and how they interacted. An example was given of an official who mocked villagers for having an alter to Sun Wukong (the monkey from Journey to the West) as he was fictional, but then Monkey appeared to him and proved himself and the official became a true believer. Zeitin had a great quote about how it wasn't the origin of a deity that mattered but their "ling" or spiritual efficacy. This agrees completely with other arguments I've read on the nature of folk religion. It was a fascinating book. I'm very glad I have a copy for reference. Both books I've read by Zeitlin have been fantastic and I hope she writes more soon. In the meantime I shall have to search out some articles.

196181 星期二
先生 想起《聊齋志異》,說:「我倒打商務的主意。商務從前出的聊齋志異詳註,不曉得商務還有沒有?……如果商務願意影印的話,我願意把我的校本借給他,他可以發大財的。……
"編者胡頌平附記: 以後商務借用(胡適)先生的校正本影印出版
非常可惜"  胡適之先生年譜長編   p.3687



195956日 星期三


聊齋志異  絳妃

癸亥歲,余館於畢刺史公之綽然堂。公家花木最盛,暇輒從公杖履,得恣游賞。一日,眺覽既歸,倦極思寢,解屨登牀。夢二女郎,被服豔麗,近請曰: 「有所奉託,敢屈移玉。」余愕然起,問:「誰相見召?」曰:「絳妃耳。」

恍惚不解所謂,遽從之去。俄睹殿閣,高接雲漢。下有石階,層層而上,約盡百餘級, 始至顛頭。見朱門洞敞。又有二三麗者,趨入通客。無何,詣一殿外,金鉤碧箔,光明射眼。內一女人降階出,環佩鏘然,狀若貴嬪。方思展拜,妃便先言:「敬屈 先生,理須首謝。」呼左右以毯貼地,若將行禮。余惶悚無以為地,因啟曰:「草莽微賤,得辱寵召,已有餘榮。況敢分庭抗禮,益臣之罪,折臣之福!」

妃命撤毯 設宴,對筵相向。酒數行,余辭曰:「臣飲少輒醉,懼有愆儀。教命云何?幸釋疑慮。」妃不言,但以巨杯促飲。余屢請命。乃言:「妾,花神也。合家細弱,依棲 於此,屢被封家婢子,橫見摧殘。今欲背城借一,煩君屬檄草耳。」余皇然起奏:「臣學陋不文,恐負重託;但承寵命,敢不竭肝之愚。」妃喜,即殿上賜筆札。 諸麗者拭案拂座,磨墨濡毫。又一垂髫人,折紙為範,置腕下。略寫一兩句,便二三輩疊背相窺。

余素遲鈍,此時覺文思若湧。少間,稿脫,爭持去,啟呈絳妃。妃 展閱一過,頗謂不疵,遂復送余歸。醒而憶之,情事宛然。但檄詞強半遺忘,因足而成之:

謹按封氏,飛揚成性,忌嫉為心。濟惡以才,妒同醉骨;射人於暗,姦類含沙。昔虞帝受其狐媚,英、皇不足解憂,反借渠以解慍;楚王蒙其蠱惑,賢才 未能稱意,惟得彼以稱雄。沛上英雄,雲飛而思猛士;茂陵天子,秋高而念佳人。從此怙寵日恣,因而肆狂無忌。怒號萬竅,響碎玉於王宮;淜湃中宵,弄寒聲於秋 樹。倏向山林叢裡,假虎之威;時於灩澦堆中,生江之浪。

且也,簾鉤頻動,發高閣之清商;簷鐵忽敲,破離人之幽夢。尋帷下榻,反同入幕之賓;排闥登堂,竟作翻書之客。不曾於生平識面,直開門戶而來;若 非是掌上留裙,幾掠妃子而去。吐虹絲於碧落,乃敢因月成闌;翻柳浪於青郊,謬說為花寄信。賦歸田者,歸途纔就,飄飄吹薜荔之衣;登高臺者,高興方濃,輕輕 落茱萸之帽。篷梗卷兮上下,三秋之羊角摶空;箏聲入乎雲霄,百尺之鳶絲斷繫。不奉太后之詔,欲速花開;未絕座客之纓,竟吹燈滅。甚則揚塵播土,吹平李賀之 山;叫雨呼雲,捲破杜陵之屋。馮夷起而擊鼓,少女進而吹笙。蕩漾以來,草皆成偃;吼奔而至,瓦欲為飛。未施摶水之威,浮水江豚時出拜;陡出障天之勢,書天 雁字不成行。助馬當之輕帆,彼有取爾;牽瑤臺之翠帳,於意云何?至於海鳥有靈,尚依魯門以避;但使行人無恙,願喚尤郎以歸。古有賢豪,乘而破者萬里;世無 高士,御以行者幾人?駕礮車之狂雲,遂以夜郎自大;恃貪狼之逆氣,漫以河伯為尊。姊妹俱受其摧殘,彙族悉為其蹂躪。紛紅駭綠,掩苒何窮?擘柳鳴條,蕭騷無 際。雨零金谷,綴為藉客之裀;露冷華林,去作沾泥之絮。埋香瘞玉,殘妝卸而翻飛;朱榭雕欄,雜珮紛其零落。減春光於旦夕,萬點正飄愁;覓殘紅於西東,五更 非錯恨。翩躚江漢女,弓鞋漫踏春園;寂寞玉樓人,珠勒徒嘶芳草。

斯時也:傷春者有難乎為情之怨,尋勝者作無可奈何之歌。爾乃趾高氣揚,發無端之踔厲;催蒙振落,動不已之瓓珊。傷哉綠樹猶存,簌簌者繞牆自落; 久矣朱旛不豎,娟娟者霣涕誰憐?墮溷沾籬,畢芳魂於一日;朝榮夕悴,免荼毒以何年?怨羅裳之易開,罵空聞於子夜;訟狂伯之肆虐,章未報於天庭。誕告芳鄰, 學作蛾眉之陣;凡屬同氣,羣興草木之兵。莫言蒲柳無能,但須藩籬有志。且看鶯儔燕侶,公覆奪愛之仇;請與蝶友蜂交,共發同心之誓。蘭橈桂楫,可教戰於昆 明;桑蓋柳旌,用觀兵於上苑。東籬處士,亦出茅廬;大樹將軍,應懷義憤。殺其氣燄,洗千年粉黛之冤;殲爾豪強,銷萬古風流之恨!



 3. 花神
 注音一式 ㄏㄨㄚ ㄕㄣˊ
 漢語拼音 hu  sh n  注音二式 hu  sh n