2017年6月5日 星期一

胡適等是人權先知/Universal Declaration of Human Rights《胡適與現代中國人權觀念資料彙編》

胡適等是人權先知。20年代末新月雜誌社出版《人權論集》一書,由胡適寫序,

《人權論集》目錄



本書定名為《胡適與現代中國人權觀念資料彙編》*,涵括兩大部分。第一部分重行編輯整理久已絕版的《人權論集》(上海:新月書店,1930);第二部分,分為兩卷,選錄脈絡相承,確可彰顯人權觀念之重要史料。這些文獻資料,涉及領域多元而豐富,當年確曾引領風騷,擴張開展,導引澎湃的時代思潮。本書選精取要,執此一編,期便利研究與教學工作。

國立人權博物館籌備處主持,中研院近史所主編,稻鄉出版社印行,潘光哲(總編),林弘毅(責任編輯)《胡適與現代中國人權觀念資料彙編》目錄
王逸群主任序
編輯凡例
導論:潘光哲
第一章:批評政府、辯論黨義的《人權論集》
小序—胡適
人權與約法—胡適
〈人權與約法〉的討論—胡適
我們什麼時候才可有憲法:對於《建國大綱》的疑問—胡適
論人權—羅隆基
論思想統一—梁實秋
告壓迫言論自由者:研究黨義的心得—羅隆基
「新文化運動」與國民黨—胡適
知難,行亦不易:孫中山先生「行易知難說」的述評—胡適
專家政治—羅隆基
名教—胡適
第二卷:引領風騷、嚮導時代的人 權史料
爭自由的宣言—胡適(等)
我們要我們的自由—胡適
汪精衛論思想統一—羅隆基
對於言論自由之初步認識
我的被捕的經過與反感—羅隆基
人權釋疑—羅隆基
保障人權之謂何?
宋慶齡等發起中國民權保障聯盟
民權的保障—胡適
中國為什麼沒有輿論?—胡霖
政府與提倡道德—傅斯年
汪蔣通電裡提起的自由—胡適
為報界向五中全會請命
統制思想與政治教育—蕭公權
思想自由與文化—張東蓀
法國人權協會之人權宣言—張君勱
中國的政局—儲安平
論文匯、新民、聯合三報被封及大公報在這次學潮中所表示的態度—儲安平
出版法及新聞自由
我們建議政府調查並公佈白報紙配給情形—儲安平
第二個聞一多事件萬萬製造不得—儲安平
第三卷反抗威權、先鋒民主的《自由中國》
關於統一思想底問題—殷海光
言論自由的認識及其基本條件
國家自由與個人自由—羅鴻詔
個人自由乎?國家自由乎?—傅正
政治組織與個人自由—殷海光
對文化界清潔運動的兩項意見
個人為國家之本—殷海光
對搆陷與汙衊的抗議—從個人自由與國家自由說起—雷震
倪路案亟待澄清
我們的新聞自由
為自治半月刊橫遭查扣而抗議
出版法事件的綜合觀—夏道平
國民黨當局應負的責任和我們應有的努力—傅正
創設講理俱樂部—殷海光
你要不要做人?—殷海光
政府不應用經濟方法打擊民營報紙!—傅正
從憲法保障人民身體的自由說到取諦流氓辦法—雷震
治安機關無權查扣書刊—從祖國月刊被扣說到書報雜誌審查月報之違法—傅正
請速停辦大陸來台國民調查!—
自由中國言論撰稿人共同聲明—殷海光(等)
我的抗議與呼籲:法院拒絕提審我的丈夫雷震先生後「—宋英
附錄:中國人權觀念史大事記(1920~1960)




2014
In 1948, under the leadership of the United States and the prodding of Eleanor Roosevelt, the UN General Assembly proclaimed December 10 to be Human Rights Day, to bring to the attention to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights as the common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations. Today, 66 years later, America faces the reality of police brutality, CIA torture, and the imprisonment of a larger portion of our population than any other modern nation. What happened?
On Dec. 10, 1948, the U.N. General Assembly adopted its Universal Declaration on Human Rights.

2011
12月10日是聯合國所定「世界人權日」,聯合國人權高級專員皮萊9日指出,2011年是人權很不尋常的一年,從突尼西亞爆發「阿拉伯之春」洪流,完成改變了中東歷史軌跡。
她強調,阿拉伯之春波瀾壯闊,引發全球迴響,而傳播此信息的,不是傳統媒體或其他媒介,而是飛速增長的社交媒體。
皮萊指出,今天無論在什麼地方發生抗爭,保証將在推特上發言,在臉書上張貼,在You ube上播出,在互聯網上載。政府不再能壟斷信息傳播並審查言論。
聯合國大會於1948年12月10日通過並發表「世界人權宣言」,1950 年,聯大決定將每年的12月10日定為「世界人權日」。

Ten of the best political documents

The reports, acts and manifestos that defined the world we live in today
The title page of  the Communist Manifesto
The title page of the Communist Manifesto Photograph: The British Library Board

Magna Carta

The Great Charter of Freedoms, signed reluctantly by King John in 1215, is the foundation of constitutional law across the globe, enshrining what became the writ of habeas corpus and protecting individuals from unlawful imprisonment. English barons, enraged by John's arrogance, forced the document upon him to rein in his powers and shelter their own privileges. Among a wide variety of provisions, such as the removal of all weirs and a ban on men being imprisoned on the testimony of a woman, it established the supremacy of the law over the king's will, allowed for a fixed law court, later the chancellery, and created an independent council that became a prototype parliament.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The second world war had ended three years previously, leaving nations scarred, traumatised and determined to make a better fist of things. The document recognises that respect for human dignity is the surest platform for peace and justice and it proclaims four fundamental rights: freedom of speech and belief, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. It isn't legally enforceable, but it defines the freedoms and rights set out in the United Nations Charter, which is binding, and its provisions – including a ban on torture, slavery and discrimination – have found their way into most constitutions since 1948.


Slavery Abolition Act 1833

The slave trade had been illegal since 1807 when the Slave Trade Act levied penalties of £100 a captive on defiant British captains, but slavery itself continued unmolested, while importers found ways to get round the ban. This second act abolished the practice throughout most of the British Empire and freed nearly 800,000 African slaves. For its time, the act was costly – the Exchequer had to find £20m (40% of the government's annual expenditure) to compensate disgruntled plantation owners. However, only slaves aged under six were liberated; the rest had to serve "apprenticeships" with their owners for four to six years, and unfortunates enslaved in lands owned by the powerful East India Company were ignored by the legislation.

United States Declaration of Independence

The second sentence – "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness" – is one of the most famous in the English language. The point of the statement, drawn up by Thomas Jefferson, was to declare American independence from the British Empire. It also outlined an uplifting definition of human rights, including the right to revolution, which Abraham Lincoln reckoned should be guiding principles in interpreting the US Consititution.

Rights of Man

Thomas Paine's tract, published in 1791, so inflamed the conservative powers in England that he was sentenced to hang, but he nipped over to revolutionary France where his inflammatory style was more admired. Paine declared that revolution is permissible when the rights, interests and safety of the people are at risk. Since the sole purpose of government is to preserve the above, he believed that all men should have the vote, and that the monarchy, the nobility and the military are illegitimate. He proposed a written constitution, the elimination of primo­geniture, a progressive income tax to squeeze wealthy estates, and subsidised education for the poor.


Beveridge report

The cornerstone of the welfare state and a reinterpretation of the role of government. In 1942, in the midst of the second world war, this white paper sketched the practicalities of a brave new world and was hailed by the Archbishop of Canterbury as "the first time anyone had set out to embody the whole spirit of the Christian ethic in an act of parliament". Its author, economist William Beveridge, pinpointed five "giant evils" in modern society: squalor, ignorance, want, idleness and disease. The reforms he proposed grew, after the war, into the NHS, social security, redistributive taxation and state pensions.

Representation of the People Act 1867

Its catchier name is the Second Reform Act. The groundwork was achieved 35 years earlier when the Reform Act 1832 cleaned up various unwholesome aspects of the electoral system by eliminating some of the whiffiest of the rotten boroughs and enlarging the electorate by 60%. However, that still left most of the population unable to vote, so the successor act enfranchised a swath of the working classes. At first only "respectable" workers were to be privileged, but political oneupmanship led to the Conservatives venturing more drastic reforms that made most urban householders eligible (provided they were male, naturally).

The Communist Manifesto

"A spectre is haunting Europe – the spectre of communism," begins Karl Marx's 1848 exposition on communist belief. History, asserts the manuscript, is all about class struggle between those who own the means of production and those who toil to produce for wages, and one day the latter would overthrow the former. Self-interest and exploit­ation are the chief currency of capitalism and among proposed measures to vanquish these were a confiscation of private property, progressive income tax, free education and nationalisation of transport, credit and communication. However destructive the political results, Marx's analysis contains social truths still relevant today.

Summa Theologica

Thomas Aquinas, one of the fathers of western theology (1225-74) describes the circumstances under which a just war may be declared. This, he says, requires: a legitimate authority, ie a legal ruler; a just cause and a right intention. A second set of criteria were traditionally added, relating to the conduct of war. These emphasise proportionate use of force and immunity for non-combatants. Modern events, in particular the war in Iraq, have raised the question of what constitutes a legitimate authority, while many have questioned whether, by these criteria, any war can be justified.

Cyrus Cylinder

One of the world's first charters of human rights, or cynical propaganda, depending on how you look at it: it's a fat clay cylinder detailing the virtues and achievements of the Persian ruler Cyrus the Great following his conquest of Babylon in 539BC. Whereas most invaders took pride in detailing their destruction of conquered lands, Cyrus curries favour by pointing out how he has restored peace to Babylon, repaired his subjects' houses and temples, restored their cults and allowed displaced peoples to return to their homelands. Iranian human rights lawyer Shirin Ebadi hailed the charter as "one of the most important documents that should be studied in the history of human rights".

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