2011年6月30日 星期四

胡適 未完成的雕像 (夏菁 1963)

胡適 未完成的雕像 (夏菁 1963)

......你已走向歷史
塑成永恆的微笑
春來時
它將如迎面的蒲公英
對你的塑像
尚待我們自心底完成



胡適 未完成的雕像
此詩寫於1963年2月22日 胡適逝世周年

夏菁著 民國66年初版 台北: 純文學發行. 頁106-110

胡適一席談 司馬桑敦

人生行腳 (司馬桑敦)

記者的訪問都有時效性
因此訪問胡適 (去參加東西哲學會議 讚揚台灣的教育水平....) 1955/7/7

左舜生 齊世英 (1962/9 被開除黨籍後....) 陳若犧 等多人
感覺都已時過境遷



人生行腳(散文) 聯經文學34】. 司馬桑敦- 聯經出版事業股份有限公司,1988-09-01 出版

《史記探源》;「視崔適如毒藥」

洪業教授及其《史記三講》」等,才知道此書很耐讀,應多溫書。

洪先生;視崔適如毒藥

童元方著(1996)《一樣花開》台北爾雅叢書,1996

----

崔適(1854—1924),近代經學家,受教于俞樾,治校勘訓詁之學,與章太炎是同門兄弟。他的主要著作有《春秋復始》、《史記探源》、《五經釋要》、 《論語足徵記》等。
這本《史記探源》的核心思想,就是崔適的學術傾向——“今文經學”。他認為《史記》本為今文學,由於劉歆和後人的篡改,乃雜有古文。
他的學術影響了課堂上的一位學生:顧頡剛,顧頡剛成為疑古史派的領袖,崔適功不可沒。
胡適曾經開過一個“最低限度的國學書目”,裏面不含司馬遷的《史記》,但有崔適的這本《史記探源》。胡適一定後悔不該隨便開書單

史記探源

2011年6月26日 星期日

顧一樵

中國的文藝復興 (顧一樵) 多引胡適初期作品

顧一樵的主要著作 可參《顧一樵全集》台北:台灣商務印書館1961 包括《顧一樵六十自述》

Gustave A. Pfeiffer* 遺產買西洋棋

1953/9/9 這一天他們71名留美學生在美國上路


胡適知道Gustave A. Pfeiffer*遺產中千萬美金要大都會博物館等 買西洋棋
要寫信 去勸說 買亞洲的棋 ?

日記英文重打有錯字
Of the residuary estate, after bequests to relatives and employees, four-fifths was designated for the ....


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*牽涉到 warner-lambert 公司複雜併購史之一頁
Address: 201 Tabor Road, Morris Plains, New Jersey 07950-2693, U.S.A.
Telephone: (201) 540-2000
Fax: (201) 540-3761
Employees: 34,000
Sales: $5.6 billion
Stock Exchanges: New York Zurich Paris London Frankfurt
Incorporated: 1920 as William R. Warner & Co.
SIC: 2834 Pharmaceutical Preparations; 2836 Biological Products Except Diagnostic; 2835 Diagnostic Substances; 2844 Toilet Preparations; 2067 Chewing Gum; 2064 Candy & Other Confectionery Products; 3421 Cutlery

The Warner-Lambert Co. manufactures and markets pharmaceutical, consumer health care, and confectionery products, including such popular brands as Listerine antiseptic mouthwash, Chiclets gum, Halls lozenges, Certs mints, Rolaids antacids, and Schick razors.

The product of a long history of mergers and acquisitions, the Warner-Lambert name reflects the combined assets of two businesses: the William R. Warner Company, a pharmaceutical and cosmetic concern, and Lambert-Pharmacal, manufacturers of Listerine oral antiseptic, which merged in the 1950s. Thereafter, Warner-Lambert became a large multinational corporation under the leadership of Elmer Holmes Bobst.

Bobst arrived at William R. Warner & Company in 1945, already a veteran executive of the pharmaceutical industry and a multimillionaire. As president of Hoffmann-La Roche's U.S. office, he had proved instrumental in acquiring for the Swiss company a large share of the U.S. drug market. Many observers were surprised that Bobst accepted the position at Warner; he was then 61 years old, wealthy, and could have settled into a comfortable retirement.

However, when Gustave A. Pfeiffer, Warner's chairperson and the only surviving member of the original founding family, approached Bobst with an offer of the presidency, he accepted. Nearly 30 years earlier, Bobst had been asked to join Warner as the head of its pharmaceutical division but declined when the Pfeiffer family refused to sell Bobst any of the company stock (the family held all the common stock). By the mid-1940s, however, Bobst had proved his abilities, and Pfeiffer readily offered the job on Bobst's terms; Bobst was hired and allowed to purchase 11 percent of the common stock. By 1955, Bobst's holdings were worth over $3 million.

What Bobst inherited with his new position was a family operated company suffering from an aging product line and antiquated facilities. Although Pfeiffer's 1916 acquisition of the Hudnut cosmetic line accounted for most of the company's $25 million sales, that product line was barely turning a profit. In an effort to improve the image of the cosmetics production, Bobst renamed the firm Warner-Hudnut in 1950.

Warner had a long history of growth through acquisition. Warner was founded in the mid-nineteenth century by William Warner, a Philadelphia pharmacist who had earned a fortune by inventing a sugar-coating for pills. In 1908, the company was acquired by the Gustavus A. Pfeiffer & Company, a patent medicine company from St. Louis. Pfeiffer retained the Warner company name, moved its headquarters to New York, and began a series of acquisitions that included the Hudnut line and the DuBarry cosmetic company. By the time Bobst assumed the presidency, some 50 companies had been acquired during the 99 years of the Warner company's history.

Bobst's managerial style was well suited to this company acquisition policy. Moreover, his experience with high-level industry and political affairs enabled him to hire a new management team of accomplished executives and public figures. Successful investment bankers, business executives, and political officials were brought in, notably Anna Rosenberg, the company's manager of industrial and public relations, who was once the U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense, and Alfred Driscoll, later Warner's president, who had served as governor of New Jersey for seven years.

In 1952, Bobst made his first major acquisition, purchasing New Jersey Chilcott Laboratories, Inc. Chilcott earned its reputation as a manufacturer of ethical drugs largely through its development of Peritrate, a long-acting "vasodilator," which enlarged constricted blood vessels. By 1966, an estimated 56 percent of 3.1 million people afflicted by heart disease used Peritrate. While the sales of the drug became Warner-Hudnut's mark of excellence in the pharmaceutical industry, its success was also cause for some controversy.

Peritrate proved useful in a wider application of treatments than originally allowed, and the Food & Drug Administration (FDA) approved of Peritrate's "new drug" usages in 1959. Over the next several years, however, Warner embarked on a controversial Peritrate advertising campaign. Appearing in several medical journals, including the Journal of the American Medical Association, ten page ads advocated the use of Peritrate not only for the treatment of angina, but as a "life-prolonging" prophylactic for all cardiac patients. The advertisement, based on the results of one study, was released at a time when the FDA had initiated an increasingly aggressive policy of evaluating claims for drug effectiveness. Even as the director of the study refuted the advertisement claims, Warner-Lambert executives stood by the claims for the effectiveness of their drug. However, by 1966, the government, under the directive of the FDA, seized a shipment of the drug, bringing charges against the company's unapproved advocacy of an even wider usage for the drug.

Also during this time, Bobst arranged a merger between his company and Lambert-Pharmacal. Bobst had met the president of Lambert, Edward Williams, at a meeting of the American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education, and the two decided that their operations, each producing different but reputable products, would complement one another. Bobst was particularly interested in gaining access to Lambert's well-organized distribution network, which incorporated modern marketing techniques previously unavailable at Warner-Hudnut's. Furthermore, Williams brought a strong background in the management of pharmaceutical companies, enhancing Bobst's accomplished executive team, which had little experience in the pharmaceutical industry. When Warner and Lambert merged, former governor Alfred Driscoll was named president of the new company.

Lambert's Listerine product, which had accounted for over 50 percent of Lambert's total sales, guaranteed Warner a large share of the oral antiseptic market.Listerine was developed in the nineteenth century and became widely popular, particularly under the advertising strategy of Gordon Seagrove, who joined Lambert in 1926 after leaving his job as a Calliope-player in the circus. Seagrove made Listerine a household staple by promoting its ability to cure halitosis, sore throats, and dandruff. The advertising copy for one magazine ad depicted a man encouraging a woman to continue massaging Listerine into his head, with the tagline "Tear into it, Honey--It's Infectious Dandruff!"

Listerine continued to increase in popularity under its new ownership; by 1975, the oral antiseptic held a sizeable portion of the $300 million market. Warner-Lambert continued to invest heavily in advertising for Listerine. For years, Listerine had been advertised as a preventative measure against colds and sore throats, and, during the Asian flu epidemic of 1957, Bobst personally placed an ad in Life magazine promoting Listerine's ability to resist the sickness. The company's advertising agency had earlier rejected the ad, since its claims were unsubstantiated, but the promotion resulted in sales increases of $26 million for the year.

By 1975, the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) had begun to investigate the Listerine advertisements. The FTC disputed the cold prevention claims of Listerine as insupportable and ordered the company to embark on a disclaimer ad campaign amounting to $10 million, a figure equal to the company's average annual advertising expenditure between 1962 and 1972. The FTC argued that only corrective disclaimers could educate the consumer, and, in 1978, the Supreme Court upheld the FTC's order.

During the 1970s and 1980s, Warner-Lambert made several acquisitions, including Emerson Drug, which made Bromo-Seltzer, cough drop manufacturer Smith Brothers, American Optical, and Schick Shaving. To acquire American Chicle, makers of Chiclets chewing gum, Warner-Lambert used 7.8 million of its own stock, which was then worth about $200 million. Many industry analysts criticized the high price paid for American Chicle; in 1962, the company's net income for the year was under $10 million. By 1983, however, after expanding into foreign markets, Chiclet sales were reaching the $1 billion mark. Ward S. Hagan, chairperson of American Chicle, called its gum and mint business "the largest in the world."

Another merger during this time involved Parke, Davis & Co. However, Warner-Lambert's proposal to merge with Parke, Davis was investigated by the Antitrust Division of the Justice Department. According to the chair of the House Judiciary Committee, the merger would raise "serious problems" because it had the potential to limit competition and create a monopoly. Upon approval, the merger would result in a combined revenue of $1.7 billion and would rank the new company among the 100 largest industrial companies in the United States.

On November 12, 1970, the Justice Department announced it would not challenge the merger despite the Antitrust Division's recommendation to the contrary. The department referred the matter to the FTC, which held concurrent authority to enforce the Clayton Act. A day later, the merger was completed. By 1976, however, the FTC ordered the company to sell several units of its Parke, Davis subsidiary that produced specified drugs. Those units producing thyroid preparations, cough remedies, cough drops and lozenges, normal albumin serum, and tetanus immune globulin would have to be sold in order to restore competition in those product lines.

Satisfied with the FTC's actions, S. Burke Giblin, chair and chief executive officer of Warner-Lambert at the time of the ruling, nevertheless faced several other challenges in the ensuing years. In 1976, Warner-Lambert disclosed figures to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) concerning illegal payments abroad, announcing that more than $2.2 million "in questionable payments" had been uncovered in 14 of the 140 countries in which Warner-Lambert conducted business.

Only months later an explosion at an American Chicle plant in Queens, New York, killed six people and injured 55. After a year of investigation, a grand jury indicted the company and four of its officials on charges of reckless manslaughter and criminally negligent homicide. The charges were based on reports that the fire department had warned the company about the explosive potential of magnesium stearate dust used as a gum-machine lubricant. Contending that the charges were "outrageous" and unwarranted, company executives appealed the case. In 1978, a state judge dismissed the charges citing "crystal clear and voluminous evidence" that the company had tried to eliminate the danger of an explosion. The following year, however, the New York State court's appellate division voted to restore the indictments. Finally, in 1980, the state's highest court once again dismissed all charges in connection with the explosion.

Another controversy involved Warner-Lambert's Benylin cough syrup product, which was made available without a prescription in 1975. In response to questions regarding the cough syrup's effectiveness, the FDA ordered the drug back on a prescription-only status, and, after seven years of deliberation, a settlement was finally reached in which the FDA approved the reinstated over-the-counter sale of the drug.

In 1978, Warner-Lambert purchased Entenmann's Bakery for $243 million in cash. By 1982, Entenmann's had become Warner-Lambert's most profitable consumer division, with sales reaching $333 million and an annual growth rate of 19 percent. However, during this time, a rumor was started that Entenmann's profits were supporting Reverend Sun Myung Moon's Unification Church. Since the source of the rumor was said to come from Westchester county in New York, Warner-Lambert took out an ad in the county newspaper denying the alleged connection. Nevertheless, the rumor continued to circulate and actually received a large amount of publicity in the Boston, Massachusetts, area. It was reported in some places that Entenmann's delivery and sales staff were being harassed, and one Rhode Island church urged a boycott of the baked goods. When sales growth began to slip, Warner-Lambert mailed a letter to 1,600 churches in New England describing Entenmann's history as a family-owned business for 80 years before it was purchased. As Entenmann's profits continued to slip, Warner-Lambert sold the bakery to General Foods for $315 million in 1982.

The late 1970s had proved financially unstable for Warner-Lambert. Profit margins were off by 40 percent in 1979, the majority of revenues came from the sale of consumer goods, and the company was considered a potential takeover candidate. One critic characterized it a "floundering giant." That year, Ward S. Hagan replaced Bobst as chairperson, while Joseph D. Williams assumed the chief executive office. Hagan and Williams then embarked on a restructuring program with the goal of revitalizing the pharmaceutical operations and trimming unprofitable and non-core businesses.

Five unprofitable subsidiaries, including American Optical and Entenmann's, were divested between 1982 and 1986, providing Warner-Lambert with capital of nearly $600 million. At the same time, such company programs as the "Total Production System" aimed to increase productivity by cutting downtime, reducing paperwork, and creating a more flexible work environment. Hagan and Williams closed or consolidated 24 plants in foreign and domestic locations, while reducing the company labor force by almost half, from 61,000 to 32,000. Research for new drugs at the Parke, Davis division was supported by a 20 percent increase in budgetary funds during 1983 to $180 million.

Despite its improved financial condition, Warner-Lambert came under criticism, particularly for its 1982 purchase of IMED Corp., a small hospital supply manufacturer. Many found Warner-Lambert's $468 million purchase, 23 times IMED's earnings, exorbitant. IMED was the market leader, with 35 percent of sales in the hospital supply field and continued annual sales growth of 50 percent. However, the company was beset with problems. IMED's executives apparently concentrated on short-term sales goals, at the expense of new product development. In fact, a management conflict between IMED's manufacturing and research and development executives caused many important employees to resign in frustration. In 1986, Warner-Lambert sold IMED and some of its affiliates to The Henley Group, Inc. for $163.5 million.

Williams, who was given the additional duties of chairperson during Warner-Lambert's turnaround period, was able to report that return on equity had increased from nine to 32 percent from 1979 to 1986, as sales shrunk through divestments and profits held fairly steady. Investing in research and development, and luring industry talent from competing companies, Williams hoped to develop and increase sales of high-margin prescription drugs, such as Lopid, a cholesterol-reducing drug that received positive publicity in the late 1980s. However, a trend among consumers toward treatment without medication, as well as swelling support for reform of the health care industry--and the attendant possibility of price controls--caused uncertainty among ethical drug producers. Business was also threatened by a late 1980s recession and discounting in the consumer goods segment.

In anticipation of these potentially adverse market forces, a new chairperson and CEO, Melvin R. Goodes, announced yet another reorganization of Warner-Lambert late in 1991. The plan called for a 2,700-person layoff, reorganization of the global management scheme, and consolidation of operations into two groups: pharmaceuticals and consumer products. Goodes also began to concentrate the company's marketing efforts on three primary geographic markets: North America, Europe, and Japan. The company invested $1.3 billion in advertising and promotion and $473 million in research and development, apparently banking on its consumer goods, which still constituted 60 percent of annual sales in 1992.

That year, Warner-Lambert became the fourth company to enter the competitive and controversial market for transdermal nicotine patches. Its prescription smoking cessation device, branded Nicotrol, was strongly promoted through direct consumer advertising, and the product enjoyed early success. However, sales quickly declined in 1993; Warner-Lambert's late entry into the segment, chronic product shortages, a lower than expected success rate, side effects, and especially reports that some users had suffered heart attacks, all led to declines in sales.

In 1993, the company became the first to win approval from the FDA for a drug that retarded the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Warner-Lambert also formed joint ventures with Glaxo Holdings plc and Wellcome plc to orchestrate the movement of the companies' drugs from prescription to over-the-counter and generic markets.

Although still known for reporting some of the industry's lowest profit margins, Warner-Lambert enjoyed steadily increasing sales and profits from 1988 through 1992. Revenue grew from $3.91 billion to $5.6 billion, and profits nearly doubled from $340 million to $644 million during that period. While the consumer goods segment held out relatively low profits, it enjoyed strong international expansion in the late 1980s and early 1990s, helping Warner-Lambert offset some of the losses associated with its ethical drugs.

Principal Subsidiaries

Adams S. A.; American Chicle Co.; Chicle Adams, S. A.; Euronett, Inc.; Family Products Corp.; Keystone Cemurgic Corp.; Parke, Davis & Co.; Tabor Corp.; Warner-Chilcott Inc.

Further Reading

Baum, Laurie, "A Powerful Tonic for Warner-Lambert," Business Week, November 30, 1987, pp. 44, 146.

Lubove, Seth, "Failure Focuses the Mind," Forbes, November 8, 1993, pp. 76-78.

Starr, Cynthia, "First-Ever Alzheimer's Drug Brings Some Hope to Millions," Drug Topics, October 11, 1993, pp. 16-18.

Weber, Joseph, "Curing Warner-Lambert--Before It Gets Sick," Business Week, December 9, 1991, pp. 91, 94.

— Updated by April Dougal Gasbarre

《做主精兵》(1953)了不起

1953/7/23 說珠文長寄《做主精兵》 典出保羅

應如同基督耶穌的精兵,與我共受勞苦。

弟茂德後書

2 Timothy 共 4 章



胡適對大陸上當時還能有《靈食季刊社》8年來 登《做主精兵》文章 認為寫得很好....

2011年6月25日 星期六

Carl Lotus, 1873-1945 回也非助我者也,於吾言無所不說。

胡適 1953/7/21 康乃爾大學度假27天讀此史書
Becker引 Abelard 的疑生知 (真理)
他門口貼
回也非助吾者也

– 先進第四"子曰:「回也非助者也,於吾言無所不說。」 ‧

胡適之先生的世界The Many Worlds of Dr. Hu Shih: 胡適雜憶(唐德剛).... 亞波拉(Abelard)最後屈服於教會的權威而甘願與愛洛綺思永別,陳衡哲對他的懦弱表示非常 ...


  1. Cornell University: Founders and the Founding - Google 圖書結果

    Carl L. Becker - 2010 - Biography & Autobiography - 226 頁
    The act is in Laws of New YorJ(, 1865, Chapter 586; and Laws and Documents Relating to Cornell University, 21. In the latter collection there is a slight ...
    books.google.com/books?isbn=0801476151...
  2. Carl L. Becker - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    - [ 翻譯這個網頁 ]
    Becker got his Ph.D. in 1907. He was John Wendell Anderson Professor of History in the Department of History at Cornell University from 1917 to 1941. ...

Carl Lotus Becker (September 7, 1873 – April 10, 1945) was an American historian.

Contents

[hide]

[edit] Life

He was born in Waterloo, Iowa. He studied at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Frederick Jackson Turner was his doctoral advisor there. Becker got his Ph.D. in 1907. He was John Wendell Anderson Professor of History in the Department of History at Cornell University from 1917 to 1941. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1923.[1]

Cornell has recognized his work as an educator by naming one of its five new residential colleges the Carl Becker House.

[edit] Works

He is best known for The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers (1932), four lectures on The Enlightenment delivered at Yale University. His assertion—that philosophies in the "Age of Reason" relied far more upon Christian assumptions than they cared to admit—has been influential, but has also been much attacked.[by whom?] Interest in the book is partly explained by this passage (p. 47):

In the thirteenth century the key words would no doubt be God, sin, grace, salvation, heaven and the like; in the nineteenth century, matter, fact, matter-of-fact, evolution, progress; in the twentieth century, relativity, process, adjustment, function, complex. In the eighteenth century the words without which no enlightened person could reach a restful conclusion were nature, natural law, first cause, reason, sentiment, humanity, perfectibility […].

This isolation of vocabularies of the epoch chimes with much later work, even if the rest of the book is essayistic in approach. Johnson Kent Wright writes

Becker wrote as a principled liberal […]. Yet in some respects The Heavenly City presents an almost uncanny anticipation of the "postmodern" reading of the eighteenth century.
—"The Pre-Postmodernism of Carl Becker", p. 162, in Postmodernism and the Enlightenment (2001), Daniel Gordon editor

[edit] Works

  • Political Parties in the Province of New York from 1766-75 (1908)
  • The Beginnings of the American People (1915)
  • The Eve of the Revolution (1918)
  • The Declaration of Independence—A Study in the History of Political Ideas (1922, 1942)
  • Our Great Experiment in Democracy (1924)
  • The Spirit of '76 (with G.M. Clark and W.E. Dodd) (1926)
  • Modern History (1931)
  • The Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers (1932)
  • Every Man His Own Historian (1935)
  • Progress and Power (1936)
  • Story of Civilization (with Frederic Duncalf) (1938)
  • Modern Democracy (1941)
  • New Liberties for Old (1941)
  • Cornell University: Founders and the Founding (1943)
  • How New Will the Better World Be?—A Discussion of Post-War Reconstruction (1944)
  • Freedom and Responsibility in the American Way of Life (1945)
  • Freedom of Speech and Press

[edit] Quotes

  • "History is the memory of things said and done."
  • "The significance of man is that he is insignificant and is aware of it."
  • "Freedom and responsibility." This saying, from a 1943 lecture, has been frequently misquoted.[2] When Cornell memorialized Becker by naming a residential college in his honor, the university commissioned a large stone placard to be affixed to the building's entryway reading "FREEDOM WITH RESPONSIBILITY".[2]

[edit] References

  • Carl Becker: On History & the Climate of Opinion (1956) Charlotte W. Smith
  • The Pragmatic Revolt in American History: Carl Becker and Charles Beard (1958) Cushing Strout
  • Carl Becker: A Biographical Study in American Intellectual History (1961) Burleigh T. Wilkins
  • NNDB

[edit] External links


Becker, Carl Lotus, 1873-1945

Synoptic Gospels

1953/6/16 胡適給朱文長信中提到基督教學者百年來的好成績

Synoptic Gospels :對觀(照)福音;福音合參:瑪竇、瑪谷和路加三福音的內容、結構及文詞彼此非常相似,並列印在一起,謂之對觀福音(書)。

Robert H. Montgomery/ Dickinson College

1953/5/3 剪貼 Robert H. Montgomery 訃文 現在不容易找
並說明他的興趣廣博 會計 稅法 園藝 (新種荔枝送胡適嚐) 為國服務

Robert H. Montgomery's Federal Taxes on Corporations, 1942-43, Vols.

Columbia Business School's Notes | Facebook

- [ 翻譯這個網頁 ]
26 May 2009 – Columbia Business School recently bestowed the following awards in ... Robert H. Montgomery Prize in Accounting

Robert H. Montgomery Jr., 77, Entertainment Lawyer, DiesBy TINA KELLEY
Published: September 04, 2000 不知是否為訃文中的子 Arthur?

Robert H. Montgomery Jr., 77, Entertainment Lawyer, Dies - New ...

- [ 翻譯這個網頁 ]
4 Sep 2000 – Robert H. Montgomery Jr., 77, a lawyer for prominent film, ... 1923, and graduated from Harvard College and Columbia Law School. ...
www.nytimes.com ›


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他兩同年的 Dickinson College 榮譽博士
Dickinson College
Dickinson logo.png
Motto Latin: Pietate et doctrina tuta libertas
Motto in English Religion and learning, the bulwark of liberty
Established 1783
Type Private liberal arts college
Endowment $271 million[1]
President William G. Durden
Academic staff 210
Undergraduates 2,300
Location Carlisle, PA, USA
Campus Suburban
170 acres (68 hectares)
Colors Red and White
Nickname Red Devils
Website http://www.dickinson.edu/

Dickinson College is a private, residential liberal arts college in Carlisle, Pennsylvania.[2] Originally established as a Grammar School in 1773, Dickinson was chartered September 9, 1783, five days after the signing of the Treaty of Paris, making it the first college to be founded in the newly-recognized United States. Dickinson was founded by Benjamin Rush, a signer of the United States Declaration of Independence and named in honor of a signer of the Constitution, John Dickinson, who was later the President of Pennsylvania. Dickinson College is America's 16th oldest college.

With over 180 full-time faculty members and an enrollment of nearly 2,400 students, Dickinson is known for its curriculum and international education programs. Dickinson sponsors 12 study centers in other countries and its approach to global education has received national recognition from the American Council on Education and NAFSA: Association of International Educators.[3][4] The college was among six institutions profiled in depth by NAFSA for "Outstanding Campus Internationalization" in 2003 [5] The 42% acceptance rate for the Class of 2011 is Dickinson's lowest ever, and the College's nearly 6,000 applications put it amongst the top liberal arts colleges nationwide. In 2007 Dickinson's endowment topped $300 million, more than double its total from ten years before.[6]

Dickinson College is not to be confused with the Dickinson School of Law, which abuts the campus but has not been associated with the college since the late 19th century. The law school merged with Pennsylvania State University in 1997, and its students study at both the Carlisle and State College campuses. Dickinson is sometimes mistaken for, yet has no relation to, Fairleigh Dickinson University, a private university in the state of New Jersey.

John W. Mowinckel, 蕭信如

1953/4/17 住John W. Mowinckel家 下一日記是4/21

John W. Mowinckel, 82, former diplomat.

Publication: The Washington Times
Publication Date: 14-MAY-03


Byline: THE WASHINGTON TIMES

John W. Mowinckel, a former diplomat, journalist and Marine Corps officer who helped liberate the Hotel de Crillon in Paris during World War II, died May 7 in West Palm Beach, Fla. He was 82.

Born in Genoa, Italy, Mr. Mowinckel was raised in Italy...


1953/4/21 高宗武 / 蕭信如 夫婦 在華盛頓接胡適


中美特種技術合作所- 維基百科,自由的百科全書

在中國駐美武官蕭信如的幫助下,梅樂斯與軍統戴笠取得了聯繫,並就合作事宜進行 ... 成立時,美國海軍部長諾克斯,中華民國外交部部長宋子文、杜諾萬少將、蕭信如上校 ...

Dr. Philippe de Vargas王克私

臺版胡適文存序 他手頭的書的來歷 獨立評論 3合集 是Philippe de Vargas王克私釋出的
(遠東重印的 是印百五十萬字 據說稍貴)


胡適 1953/3/23 提到 他 寫成 Ph. de Vargas


他之前就已有一些相關書

1939/40 兩筆

Christianity in China: a scholars's guide to resources in the ... - Google 圖書結果

Archie R. Crouch - 1989 - Language Arts & Disciplines - 709 頁
PAMPHLETS: China in Western Literature: Fragments from Some Well-known Writers, by Philippe de Vargas, 1940; William C. Hunter's Books on the Old Canton ...
--
The history of cultural relations between China and the West / by Philippe de Vargas
Bib ID 2068272
Format BookBook
Author
Vargas, Philippe de

Description Macau : Imprensa Nacional, 1949.
24 p. ; 25 cm.
Notes

At head of title: Instituto Portugues de Hongkong, Seccao de Historia.



http://chuni-christ.blogspot.com/2010/07/blog-post_24.html
19402月,他離開閩南神學院,帶著全家到北平,在燕京大學宗教學院開始譯經工作——把新約聖經由希腊文直接翻譯為中文。除了翻譯聖經之外,他還在宗教學院教授希腊文的課程。1941年太平洋戰爭爆發後,燕京關門,全家移居北平城內。當時生活極為艱困,幸得王克私教授(Dr. Philippe de Vargas)多方籌措,接濟扶助,使他仍能繼續安心致力於翻譯工作。1945年秋,日本投降,燕大復校,他回到燕京大學。1946624日,「呂譯新約初稿」由燕京大學宗教學院出版,僅印500本,非賣品,獻於新約學者,廣徵意見和批評或提示,以便再事修改。

FORMOSA: Bright Feather Monday, Jan. 19, 1953


 FORMOSA: Bright Feather Monday, Jan. 19, 1953

胡適1/23在安克拉買到此 有圖?

FORMOSA: Bright Feather

Monday, Jan. 19, 1953



The big news on Formosa last week was a visiting celebrity: Dr. Hu Shih, China's most respected scholar, who was concluding his first visit to Formosa since that strategic island became the Nationalist refuge and stronghold. Scholar Hu (who has been leading the scholarly life in New York and Princeton) received a flattering and festive welcome, dined with Chiang Kai-shek and lectured to eager crowds.

His visit to Formosa was a big, bright feather in the Nationalist cap. Its importance stemmed not only from his eminence as a philosopher, poet, diplomat and educator, but from the fact that he was once regarded as outside of and above the struggle between Communists and Kuomintang. After four years (1938-42) as Chiang's ambassador in Washington, he left his post because of a tiff with the wartime Chungking regime. In 1947 he said: "Liberal is a terrible term these days, so you'd better just call me an independent." He wrote a letter to "Dear Mr. Mao" urging the Red leader to disband the Red army if and when the Communists joined the government. Now, five years later, the mainland Reds spewed out a poisonous torrent of calumny against him, and Chinese neutralists in Hong Kong and Singapore, who sigh for a nonexistent third force, sulked because Hu had ignored them.

On Formosa, Hu called for more freedom of debate and criticism in the press, quizzically quoting a newspaper article that said "only Hu Shih enjoys freedom of speech in free China." But he praised the present freedom of discussion in Formosa's Legislative Yuan (assembly), citing that the Sino-Japanese peace treaty had been passed only after Foreign Minis ter George Yeh had to put in 19 appear ances before Yuan committees.

Hu Shih compared the Nationalist struggle to regain the mainland with France's struggle to free herself of the Nazis in World War II. But he counseled patience as well as perseverance. "The deliverance of France," he said, "took place not only through the individual efforts of loyal Frenchmen . . . but because a free France had become an integral part of global strategy . . . We know that half a million [Nationalist] soldiers are not enough to retake the mainland. Our future is linked with that of the free world, which must one of these days answer the question whether it is going to leave 450 million people on the Chinese mainland to be drilled, equipped and indoctrinated by world Communism."

東京大學

東京大學
參訪是1953/1/21 下午
不是年譜長編中的1/20 下五(參訪國會圖書館 50多萬冊) 東洋文庫 靜嘉堂文庫....)

李嘉 (三書 日本通)

1953/1/21 中央社李嘉 請午飯 很好:Sukiyaki (Japanese: 鋤焼 or more commonly すき焼き) is a Japanese dish in the nabemono (Japanese hot pot) style.



李嘉先生有不少好書待查
喝volka 要先冰至...度再一口喝下

李嘉. 《扶桑舊事新語》《蓬萊談古說今》 《東瀛人物逸事... 台北:四季出版社. 1981. 李嘉.

夢的畫像 作者:海涅著 李嘉譯 出版社:雅典書屋 此書待查 可能同名作者

『河豚計畫的三重目的:(1)日本人想借用在美國猶太人團體和知名人士位日本說項,消除或減輕美國政府和人民對日本的敵意、畏懼和猜疑;(2)想藉此從中獲得美國猶太財團的巨額美金援助,購買日本所需要的軍事物資;(3)開發東北,使得東北成為日本與蘇俄之間的緩衝區。(摘錄自-扶桑舊事新語-李嘉著)』

2011年6月22日 星期三

胡適沒有明白意識的繙譯???

《眾樹歌唱》增訂版導讀 柯慶明

   梁啟超提倡新小說,胡適提倡新文學之際,他們心目中都以西洋的近代文學為典範;他們相信其中所顯現的近代世界的生活感知,足以引領在文明上落後的中國, 至少在精神意識上,能夠更加快速的進入近現代的文明境域。但是當胡適在〈建設的文學革命論〉,主張應該:「趕緊多多的繙譯西洋的文學名著,做我們的模 範。」時,他並沒有明白意識到:如何繙譯?繙譯是採直譯?意譯?繙譯的語言風格,作品的形式、結構等等的問題。

  但對大多數的寫作者而 言,若他們透過譯作來學習,則他們的「模範」,其實並不是「西洋的文學名著」本身,他們學習的並不僅是原作的主題思維,經驗歷程,同時更是譯作呈現的語言 質地、結構形式與美感情趣所形成的整體藝術風格。即使譯者盡力求取其譯作趨近原作,譯作仍是與原作不同:不同的文化傳統,歷史經驗與語言情韻所形成的獨特 語言表現與接受體驗等等,都使得兩種語言之間必然有著無法完全跨越的鴻溝;更重要的,即使不談譯作必然是建立在對原作的特殊解讀、詮釋之上,因而未必能夠 精準或全面的掌握原作的多層、多方的意涵與素質;譯者個人的生存情境與才性學識,亦自有其積習而成的特殊語言風格,這自為原作者所不知;但卻成了譯作的讀 者所直接經驗的對象。因而,當嚴復以「信、達、雅」三者討論譯事:「信」固然是力求不誤讀、不扭曲,所以區別「繙譯」與「創作」的基本要求,但「達」、 「雅」之間,其實反映的卻是譯者對自身文字風格的斟酌與考量。

 因而新文學的「模範」其實是眾多的西洋文學的「譯作」,它本身有因襲、有 創 造,但卻都成了別人學習的典範。因而說:這些繙譯創造了新文學的作品形式與內容意識,或許亦不為過。就以作品形式而言,在諸多的嘗試之餘,小說或許採取了 「減法」,減去了章回的回目與回內呼應對仗回目的故事結構,減去了說話人的口吻與論說,以至引詩、評點等傳統舊習。詩則顯然在放棄了以中國舊詩體之「以中 詩譯西詩」的嘗試後,(少時曾見分別以五言、七言、樂府與楚騷等舊體詩繙譯Samuel Taylor Coleridge的The Rime of the Ancient Mariner的合集,此書已無法尋索,僅記得楚騷體的譯者就是胡適),採取了加法:分行、分節。漸以白話繙譯詩意,但仍力求押韻、節與節之句數一致,更 要求字數,或調整句內的音節,至少是音節數的勻整等等……這種各類音律的考量,都曾有多方嘗試,它們未必形成通用的體式;但分行、分節,語句詩意之跨行連 結,形成戲劇性的對比……則已了新詩以至現代詩的通用表現形式。.....

葉維廉 譯‧著《眾樹歌唱:歐洲與拉丁美洲現代詩選譯》

2011年6月21日 星期二

the foundation by General Horace W. Carpentier of the Dean Lung Chair of Chinese

蘇先生再述個最美的故事 丁龍講座 Dean Lung Lecture


.......幸虧他修了夏德教授(Frederich Hirth)的漢學(Sinology)課程,我們今天才聽到「丁龍 Dean Lung」這個名字。夏德教授是「丁龍講座」設立後的第一位「講座教授」。

丁龍是中國人,不知道他是姓丁名龍,還是姓龍名丁。他是美國將軍卡本迪(Horace W. Carpentier, 1825-1918)的僕人,丁龍勤勞誠實,深得主人信賴。在丁龍退休時,將軍給了他兩萬元美金作退休金。

丁龍將這兩萬元捐給哥倫比亞大學,成立了一個「漢學講座」,作為研究中國文化之用。卡本迪將軍知到了這件事,他把錢湊足為十萬美元,而成立了這個講座。.......



網路上有介紹


2)From Mia Anderer

在一份名为Memoirs of H. A. Giles的资料上,Dean Lung后面所附的汉字清清楚楚地写着“天龙”,这就推翻了 Dean Lung是姓+名的说法,而是一个常见的中国人的双名。米亚据此大胆推测,1905年的高尔威统计报告中Dean Ding的Ding应该是Dean Lung的姓氏,Dean Lung的中文名字很可能就是“丁天龙”。

H.A.Giles有Dean Lung的资料,是因为当时为了庆祝Dean Lung Chair of Chinese的设立,Herbert Allen Giles曾受邀于1902年3月在哥大做了一篇题为"China and the Chinese"的演讲:

The following Lectures were delivered during March, 1902, at Columbia University, in the city of New York, to inaugurate the foundation by General Horace W. Carpentier of the Dean Lung Chair of Chinese.

...

HERBERT A. GILES.

Cambridge, England, April 15, 1902.

【记录】丁龙的中文名字


蘇文等記的年份是1910捐款 可是1902年就已有講座紀錄

The Project Gutenberg eBook of China and the Chinese, by Herbert ...

- [ 翻譯這個網頁 ]
LECTURER (1902) ON THE DEAN LUNG FOUNDATION IN COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY ... The following Lectures were delivered during March, 1902, at Columbia University, ...

聞一多的音節

梁羽生 《筆不花》香港: 三聯 1989
內容廣而淺 多不深入
介紹文人 標題奇

譬如說 "聞一多論詩鄙胡適" 其實只是批評俞平伯的《冬夜》中的一段
"胡適之先生自敘再版《嘗試集》 因為他的詩由詞曲的音節進而為純粹的"自由詩"的音節 很自鳴得意 其實這是很可笑的事
舊詞曲的音節並不全是詞曲自身的音節 音節的可能性寓於一種方言 自有一種天賦的音節"

其他二篇介紹梁寒操以及台灣朋友抄給他的輓胡適聯 這跟胡適之先生沒什麼關係
梁羽生散文

2011年6月10日 星期五

最近二十年胡適著述之出版 (2003中國 楊早)

最近二十年胡適著述之出版
時間:2003919 作者:楊早 來源:中華讀書報


1979年以來,胡適著作的出版大致分為幾個方面:綜合性著述、書信序跋、日記自傳、有代表性的學術著作及文學作品等。影響較大的包括以下幾種:

《胡適來往書信選》(3卷,中國社會科學院近代史研究所中華民國史研究室編,北京:中華書局,19791980),作為1979年以來最早出版的胡適著作的選本之一,該書的學術價值頗高,其中編選了胡適保存在北京寓所內的書信(19151948),附錄部分還收入相關的文獻資料和手稿譯文等。稍後有梁錫華編選的《胡適密藏書信選》(正篇、續篇,臺北:遠景出版社,1982),其書從《胡適來往書信選》中挑出部分編選而成,重新予以編排,但有刪削。《胡適遺稿及密藏書信》(42卷,耿雲志主編,合肥:黃山書社,1994),據中國社會科學院近代史研究所保留的胡適手稿影印,收入未發表過的遺稿及往來書信千餘通,史料價值極高。《胡適家書》(杜春和編,石家莊:河北人民出版社,1996),收有胡適家書近260封,分類編排。《胡適書信集》(3卷,耿雲志、歐陽哲生編,北京:北京大學出版社,1996),共收入19071962年的書信1644封,包括廣泛徵集的未刊信稿,資料完備。《胡適書評序跋集》(黃保定、季維龍選,長沙:嶽麓書社,1987),選錄各類書評性文字66篇,附錄《胡適本人著譯及編校圖書自序編目》。《論學談詩二十年——胡適楊聯往來書劄》(胡適紀念館編,臺北:聯經出版公司,1998,後由安徽教育出版社於2001年出版),為瞭解胡適學術思想提供大量資料。《不思量自難忘——胡適給韋蓮司的信》(周質平編譯,臺北:聯經出版公司,1999,後由安徽教育出版社於2001年出版),私人化視角展示出胡適的另一面。

日記中出版較早的是《胡適的日記》(2卷,中國社會科學院近代史研究所中華民國史研究室編,北京:中華書局,1985),收錄19101944年間的部分日記,據手稿整理排印,保留原貌相對完整,日記內附件省略處均有說明,具較高學術價值。《胡適留學日記》(長沙:嶽麓書社,2000),屬舊籍新刊,重版解放前商務出的胡適留學日記,收胡適留美期間的日記雜記,分17卷編排。《胡適日記全編》(曹伯言編,8卷,合肥:安徽教育出版社,2001),作為該社即將出版的《胡適全集》的先期出版物推出,該書編纂原則是忠於原稿,保持原貌,也是迄今為止收錄胡適日記最為完整的出版物。

自傳類中最有影響的是《胡適口述自傳》(唐德剛譯注,臺北:傳記文學出版社,1983,後由北京的華文出版社與上海的華東師範大學出版社分別於19891993年兩度出版),該書對瞭解胡適生平及晚年思想狀況意義重大。另有《胡適傳記作品全編》(4卷,耿雲志編,上海:東方出版中心,1999),收錄胡適的傳記類作品多種。

有代表性的學術或文藝著作的出版,最早的是《胡適哲學思想資料選》(2卷,葛懋春、李興芝編,上海:華東師範大學出版社,1981),屬內部發行,上卷選錄相關論文29篇,下卷收《胡適口述自傳》,在當時研究資料比較匱乏的情況下,其意義不容忽視。《胡適紅樓夢研究論述全編》(上海:上海古籍出版社,1988),鑒於胡適新紅學奠基人的身份,將胡適關於《紅樓夢》研究考證的文字集成一書,除專文外,還輯錄了其筆記、書信、日記中的相關文字。《胡適古典文學研究論集》(2卷,上海:上海古籍出版社,1988),收除《紅樓夢》研究之外的古典文學的相關文字。胡適在文學上的代表性作品則有《胡適詩存》(胡明編,北京:人民文學出版社,1989),其特點是除《嘗試集》外,將大量胡適的新舊體詩並收其中,並詳細注明出處及發表情況,此書1993年出有增訂版。《胡適散文選集》(易竹賢編,天津:百花文藝出版社,1990),從純文學的角度選取胡適代表性散文36篇。  綜合性著述(包括規模較大的選集文集等)在臺灣出現較早,其中《胡適作品集》(37卷,臺北:遠流出版社,1986)較為完整,此套書由胡適紀念館授權出版。在內地則有《胡適文存》(4卷,合肥:黃山書社,1996),其一、二卷根據亞東圖書館1928年版,第三卷據亞東圖書館1930年版,第四卷即《胡適論學近著》第一集,據商務印書館1935年版重新排印而成。《胡適學術文集》(8卷本,姜義華編,北京:中華書局,1998),按照胡適從事學術活動的各個方面將相關文字按照中國文學史、中國哲學史、新文學運動等八個方面分類輯集。《胡適精品集》(16卷,胡明編,北京:光明日報出版社,1998),亦系將胡適作品重新編排。《胡適文集》(12卷,歐陽哲生編,北京:北京大學出版社,1998),基本收齊胡適著作的單行本,並輯錄大量散佚文章,是目前收集胡適作品最多,規模最大的一套選集。