2018年2月5日 星期一

The Usefulness of Useless Knowledge; 胡適 (1959):"記美國醫學教育與大學教育的改造者弗勒斯那納先生 (Abraham Flexner-- 1866-1959); Who Got Einstein’s Office? The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) "北京協和,Hopkins,


The Usefulness of Useless Knowledge (Princeton University Press, 2017) features Institute for Advanced Study founding Director Abraham Flexner’s classic essay of the same title, first published in Harper’s magazine in 1939,…

胡適根據美國一些報紙的Abraham Flexner ( 1866-1959) 訃聞資料 整理之後發表
"記美國醫學教育與大學教育的改造者弗勒斯那納先生 (Abraham Flexner-- 1866-1959) "(台北:自由中國 第21卷第10期 1959年11月16日)
現在將Wikipedia 的稍微修正英文版列出供參考:

Abraham Flexner (November 13, 1866, Louisville, Kentucky - September 21, 1959) was an American educator. His Flexner Report, published in 1910, reformed medical education in the United States. He also helped found the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton.

Photograph of Abraham Flexner, circa 1895.
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A younger brother of the medical researcher Simon Flexner, who was employed by the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research from 1901-1935, Flexner graduated from Johns Hopkins University at age 19. Nineteen years later he did graduate studies at Harvard University and at the University of Berlin.[1] However, he did not complete work on an advanced degree at either of those institutions.
After graduating from Johns Hopkins, Flexner returned to Louisville and founded a private school in which to test his ideas about education. He believed that education should be marked by small classes, personal attention, and hands-on teaching. Graduates of his school were soon accepted at leading colleges, and Flexner's school attracted considerable attention.
Between 1912 to 1925, Flexner served on the Rockefeller Foundation's General Education Board, and after 1917 was its secretary. With the help of the Board, he founded another experimental school, the Lincoln School[disambiguation needed], which opened in 1917, in cooperation with the faculty at Teachers College of Columbia University.
In 1908, Flexner published his first book, The American College. Strongly critical of many aspects American higher education, it was especially critical of the university lecture as a method of instruction. According to Flexner, lectures enabled colleges to "handle cheaply by wholesale a large body of students that would be otherwise unmanageable and thus give the lecturer time for research."
Flexner's book attracted the attention of Henry Pritchett, president of the Carnegie Foundation, who was looking for someone to lead a series of studies of professional education. Although Flexner had never set foot inside a medical school, Flexner was Pritchett's first choice to lead a study of American medical education. Thus Flexner joined the research staff at the Carnegie Foundation in 1908. Two years later, he published the Flexner Report, which examined the state of American medical education and led to far-reaching reforms in the way doctors were trained. The Flexner report led to the closure of most rural medical schools and all but two of America's African American medical colleges.[2] Ironically one of the schools was located in his own hometown of Louisville, Louisville National Medical College.
Flexner soon conducted a related study of medical education in Europe. According to Bonner (2002), Flexner's work came to be "nearly as well known in Europe as in America." With funding from the Rockefeller Foundation, he worked toward restructuring the nation's medical schools. Flexner (Bonner 2002) "...exerted a decisive influence on the course of medical training and left an enduring mark on some of the nation's most renowned schools of medicine." Flexner worried that "the imposition of rigid standards by accrediting groups was making the medical curriculum a monstrosity," with medical students moving through it with "little time to stop, read, work or think." Bonner (2002) calls Flexner "the severest critic and the best friend American medicine ever had."
In his 1930 Universities: American, English, German, Flexner, returning to his earlier interest in the direction and purpose of the American university, attacked distractions from serious learning such as intercollegiate athletics, student governments, and other student activities. "Intellectual inquiry, not job training, [is] the purpose of the university."
With Louis Bamberger, Flexner founded the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, heading it from 1930 to 1939 and overseeing a faculty that included Kurt Gödel and John von Neumann. During his time there, Flexner helped to bring over many European scientists who would have likely suffered persecution at the hands of the rising Nazi government. Flexner even penned the letter inviting Albert Einstein to the Institute and to the United States.
The Flexner family's legacy in American science and academia still survives. In addition to the contributions of his brother Simon, Louis Barkhouse Flexner (January 7, 1902 - March 29, 1996), a nephew of Abraham and Simon Flexner, was the founding director of the Mahoney Institute of Neurological Sciences at the University of Pennsylvania and a former editor of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Flexner is buried in Cave Hill Cemetery in Louisville, Kentucky.


Books by Flexner

  • 1916. A Modern School.
  • 1918 (with F.B. Bachman). The Gary Schools.
  • 1928. The Burden of Humanism. The Taylorian Lecture at Oxford University.
  • 1930. Universities: American, English, German.
  • 1940. I Remember: The Autobiography of Abraham Flexner. Simon and Schuster. Fulltext on Questia.
  • 1943. A biography of H.S. Pritchett.
Flexner, Abraham. 1908. The American College: A Criticism. New York: Century.
Flexner, Abraham. 1910. Medical Education in the United States and Canada. New York: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
Flexner, Abraham. 1930. Universities: American, English, German. New York: Oxford University Press.
Flexner, Abraham. 1940. I Remember: The Autobiography of Abraham Flexner. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Books about Flexner

Wheatley, Steven. 1988. The Politics of Philanthropy: Abraham Flexner and Medical Education. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
Bonner, Thomas Neville, 2002. Iconoclast: Abraham Flexner and a Life in Learning. Johns Hopkins Univ. Press. ISBN 0-8018-7124-7.
Berliner, Howard S. 1985. A System of Scientific Medicine: Philanthropic Foundations in the Flexner Era. New York: Tavistock.


External links

  • Jacob This site offers biographical information about Abraham

根據《胡適之先生年譜長編初稿》【第八冊】pp.3023~3028,重要人名採用Wikipedia 的英文條目。

胡適:記美國醫學教育與大學教育的改造者弗勒斯納(Abraham  Flexner 1899(sic 1866)~1959 )先生 (HC按:漏一段)

     美國的大學教育的改造,最有大功的兩個人:一位是霍布鏗斯大學(Johns Hopkins University )的第一任校長吉爾曼(Daniel Coit Gilman , 1831-1908),一位是兩個月前去世的弗勒斯納先生(A.  Flexner 按:Abraham Flexner )。吉爾曼的大貢獻是主張四年的本科學院不算大學,一個大學必須是一個提倡獨立的學術研究的研究機構。弗勒斯納先生的貢獻是創辦了一個更進 一步的自由研究所,一個學人的樂園,叫做 Institute for Advanced Study, 即是一九三〇年他在普林斯敦(Princeton)創立的更高學術研究院
     美國的醫學教育的改造,最有大力(sic)的兩個人:一 位是霍布鏗斯 大學的第一任醫學院長威而瞿(William Henry WelchWilliam H. Welch 1850-1934),一位也就是弗勒斯納先生。威而瞿大貢獻是創立了第一個以醫學研究為中心的模範醫學院與附屬醫院,就是那霍布鏗斯大學的醫學院。弗勒斯納先生的大貢獻是他在五十年前(一九一〇 )調查了北美洲(美國與加拿大)的一百五十五所醫學院,揭穿了(按:Flexner Report )其中一百三十二所是可恥的不及格,他並且出了大力扶持一些最好的醫學院,使他們成為世界第一流的醫學研究中心。



     他的父母是奧 (sic,德)國的猶太人,從奧國遷移到美國南方肯突基州的路易衛兒(Louis Ville,sic, Louisville, Kentucky)。他父母是個帽子商人,生了七個兒子,兩個女兒。他家七個兄弟之中,有兩位是大有名的,哥哥西門(Simon)·弗勒斯納是病理學大家,曾主持洛克菲勒醫學研究所多年,在腦膜炎的治療上曾有大貢獻。他死在十三年前(一九四六 Simon Flexner),享年八十三歲。

     亞伯拉罕弗勒斯納(A. Flexner)從小就很聰明,很用功。他的大哥雅各 (按:Jacob))幫他的忙,使他能夠進當時最有盛名的霍布鏗斯大學,他在兩年裏習完了四年的本科功課,在一八八六年得 文學士學位 (按:Bachelor of Arts in classics at Johns Hopkins University)。他回到路易衛兒的一個中學去教書,但他那時候已有他自己對於教育的新見解了,所以他便自己創辦了一個新中學,就叫做弗勒斯納先生的學校,學校 裏採用最低限度的管理,鼓勵學生自己做學問,自己管理自己。


     一 九〇八年,他在德國海德兒堡大學,寫了一本書《美國的大學(The American College》討論"美國的大學"(按:此處有改動),指出美國大學制度的許多缺點。這本書引起了卡里奇改進教學基金Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching)主持人的注意。這個基金是鋼鐵大王卡里奇創立的,原來的目的是專為大學教授籌設退休金的。在幾十年中,曾付出美國各大學教授退休金總額 到美金三千五百萬元之多。但最初主持人普利哲(Henry S. Pritchett,Henry Smith Pritchett)很想在其他方面促進大學的改革,所以他看中了這位大膽批評美國大學的弗勒斯納先生,特別提出了一筆款子,請他詳細調查美國和加拿大現 有的一切醫學校的內容,給卡里奇基金作一個報告。


     他 指出,一百五十五個醫學校之中,只有五十個是大學的醫學院,其中只有哈佛大學和霍布鏗斯大學規定先有大學本科學士的學位才可以考入醫學院;只有康耐兒大學 醫學院規定須有大學肄業三年的資格。另有二十個醫學院只需要大學肄業兩年的資格,其餘的一百三十二個醫學院只需要中學畢業就可以入學了,甚至於有連中學畢業的資格也可以變通的!

    他指出,只有那 少數的進步的醫學院是有研究實驗室的教學的。絕大多數的醫學校完全沒有實驗室的教學。他很老實的指出,絕大多數的醫學校只是不負責任的文憑販賣店,制 造了許多沒有學識、沒有訓練的醫生,使得各城市鄉鎮醫生太多而能診斷療治的專家太少。他一一的指出,某些醫學校真是可恥的、可羞的。(有一個醫學校,實際 上並不存在,一樣的可以發文憑!)當時芝加哥一處,就有十五個醫學校!弗勒斯納先生的報告說,芝加哥成了全國散佈瘟疫的中心了。

     這個 《專刊第四號》公佈之後,真是震驚了整個北美洲的教育界,——同時也引起了一個有力量的醫學教育徹底改革的大運動。各州的醫師開業證書委員會首先提高了審查的標準,用弗勒斯納報告作審查醫師資格的參考資料,不敢隨便發給證明書了。今年弗勒斯納先生去世的消息發表之後,有一位醫學界的朋友對我說:一千九百十年,美國有一百五十五個醫學校。弗勒斯納的報告出來之後,幾年之中,只剩五十個醫學院了。一百多個所謂醫學校都開門了!


     美國石油大王洛克菲勒(John D. Rockefeller )創設了一個普通教育基金委員會General Education Board)是專為了提高教育的。一九一八年,這個基金會請弗勒斯納做助理秘書長,不久他就做了秘書長,專負醫學改革的責任。他充分倚靠石油大王父子 的慈善熱心和巨大財力,在十年之中(一九一八——一九二八),勸洛克斐勒父子捐出了五千萬美元,作為改進提高全國最有成績的幾個醫學院的經費。除了石油大王一家的五千萬元以外,他還直接或間接的勸動了別的一些慈善家,使他們先後捐出五萬萬元來提高全國的醫學校。這五億五千萬的美金在幾十年之中完成了北美洲醫學教育和醫學研究的改進與提高的事業,造成了幾十個第一流的醫學院。



      這時候,紐約的梅栖(sic,西,Macy, R.H. Macy and Company)百貨公司的兩位大股東, 班保葛( Louis Bamberger 1855~1944)和他的妹子伏爾德太太(Mrs. Felix Fuld  Caroline Bamberger Fuld),他們願意捐出八百萬元來給弗勒斯納先生試辦他夢想的小小的自由講學的研究中心。這就是普林斯敦的更高學術研究院”的開辦經費。

     這個研究院是今日所謂博士以上的(Post doctorate)更高研究所的第一個模型。弗勒斯納先生擔任了創辦第一期的院長,九年之後才退休。在這九年之中,他給這個研究院樹立了一個很好的基礎。他一面先借用普林斯敦大學的種種便利,一面買得四百英畝的土地,造起了一個小小的研究中心

     這個研究中心的中心是一群第一流的學人,弗勒斯納請來的第一位大師就是愛因斯坦先生(Albert Einstein),愛因斯坦聽他說起這個自由研究中心,他很高興,不過他說,他若離開德國,每年必須有三千美金才夠生活。弗勒斯納對他說:一切都好辦。等到愛因斯坦先生到了美國,他接到的聘書是每年年俸一萬六千元的聘約。

    這個研究院成立了還不到二十年,全院至今只有兩個部門:一是數學研究所,一是人文研究所。人文的研究是不容易在短時期內有驚人的成績的。但數學研究所在短短十幾年之中已成為世界學人公認的一個數學與理論物理學的最高研究中心了。(中央研究院的院士楊振寧先生是數學研究所的常任教授之一,其他院士,如李政道、陳省身、吳大猷、林家翹諸先生都曾在那兒作過一個時期的研究 員。)




前幾年弗勒斯納回憶他的一生,曾說卡萊兒(Carlyle)的藏書圖記上面畫一支燃著的蠟燭,下面題字是:我燃燒才可以有用。” 弗勒納斯說,我就是他一生的箴言。他活了九十二歲,可以說是完全做到了這句箴言。他總是燃燒著,要於人有用。


弗勒斯納八十歲時,決定到哥侖比亞大學去做兩個學生,在那兩年裏,他上了厄布約翰教授(Upjohn)的幾種美術史的功課,又上了納文斯教授 (Nevins)的美國史學文獻的功課。他自己說:一個退休了的人的好工作,莫如教育。可是厄布約翰教授對人說:我的課堂上有了弗勒斯納先生這樣一個學生,常使我感覺得像一匹馬的馬鞍底下壓著一顆有刺的栗苞!


《自由中國》 第二一卷十期

The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton,進一步資料和故事,可參考:

[FULL] Who Got Einstein’s Office?: Eccentricity and Genius at the Institute for Advanced Study  1987 PDF



Product Summary:
The story of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey–home for geniuses and great thinkers of the 20th century. Ed Regis explores the past of this “intellectual hotel” that has played host to 14 Nobel Prize winners. …

The Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) in Princeton, New Jersey, in the United States, is an independent, postdoctoral research center for theoretical research and intellectual inquiry founded in 1930 by American educator Abraham Flexner, together with philanthropists Louis Bamberger and Caroline Bamberger Fuld. The IAS is perhaps best known as the academic home of Albert EinsteinJohn von Neumann and Kurt Gödel, after their immigration to the United States. Although it is close to and collaborates with Princeton UniversityRutgers, and other nearby institutions, it is not part of any university or federal agency and does not charge tuition or fees.[2]


Hopkins Around the World :From offering pioneering medical and nursing training at Peking Union Medical College Hospital in the 1910s.

Peking Union Medical College Hospital is a renowned general hospital in Beijing, China. It was founded in 1921 by Rockefeller Foundation and is affiliated to both Peking Union Medical College (PUMC) and Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS).
北京協和醫院英語Peking Union Medical College Hospital)是一所位於中國北京市東城區,集醫療、科研、教學為一體的大型綜合三級甲等醫院

The Peking Union Medical College was founded in 1906. The American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., the London Missionary Society, and later, the Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, and the Medical Missionary Association of London, together with the then-Chinese government cooperated in the foundation and development of the Medical College and maintained it until 1915. The Rockefeller Foundation was established in 1913 and in 1913-1914 the newly formed Foundation created a Commission, including Dr.Franklin C. McLean, to examine medical education in China. One of its recommendations was that the Foundation - through a subsidiary organization - should assume financial responsibility for the College. On July 1, 1915 the recently established China Medical Board assumed full support of the Union Medical College, having previously acquired the property. The Commission's members had included both William Welch, the first Dean of the Johns Hopkins Medical School and Simon Flexner and the China Medical Board modeled the school after Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine following the recommendations of the Flexner Report which set the foundation of modern Medical Education in the United States and Canada. The PUMC was reorganized in 1917 and celebrated its 90th anniversary with a ceremony attended by the President of Johns Hopkins University, the Chair of the China Medical Board and representatives of the Rockefeller family and Rockefeller Brothers Fund. During the Cultural Revolution, Peking Union Medical College was closed. In 1979, it reopen as "Capital University of Medical Sciences" then returned to Peking Union Medical College (协和医科大学) .