2018年11月13日 星期二

談胡適1915年暑假讀的3本小說《安娜傳》、《 麗莎傳》、The New Machiavelli 及《獄中七日記》 --- 2018年12月17日的胡適紀念演講 (漢清講堂)



談胡適1915年暑假讀的3本小說《安娜傳》、《 麗莎傳》、The New Machiavelli 及《獄中七日記》兼論美國慈善觀念與社會之樂利
:  2018年12月17日的胡適紀念演講 (漢清講堂)



  • 胡適讀 《獄中七日記》Within Prison Walls 兼論美國慈善觀念與社會之樂利
  • 胡適讀The New Machiavelli 1915.9.7
  • 胡適日記:讀《 麗莎傳》 1915.8.31《貴族之家》

  • ******


    2018年12月17日的胡適紀念演講 (漢清講堂) Anna Karenina  by Leo Tolstoy:胡適讀托爾斯泰《安娜傳》,研究 Leo Tolstoy的思想變遷

    ***

    漢清兄好,
    是這樣的,安娜的先生姓卡列寧(Karerin),她婚後冠夫姓卡列寧,但是俄文文法要求陰性詞尾需加上字母"a"(多數情況),所以就變成卡列寧娜或卡列妮娜(Karerina),她婚後的全名就是安娜‧卡列妮娜(Anna Karenina)。
    又如,杜斯妥也夫斯基(Dostoevsky)的太太,冠夫姓時必須變化詞尾為杜斯妥也夫斯卡雅(Dostoevskaya)。
    若有問題隨時跟我說。
    祝好!
    丘光
    ┌──── 櫻桃園文化出版有限公司 VS Press Co., Ltd.


    *****

    2011年2月25日 星期五


    Anna Karenina

    可能是胡適的留學日記

    胡適留學日記(上) - 圖書基本資料

    卷五民國三年[1914]七月七日至八月十日一、《自殺篇》 .... 七、盛名非偶然可得八、思遷居九、再記木爾門教派一○、讀托爾斯泰《安娜傳》 ...


     一○、讀托爾斯泰《安娜傳》(七月十日)   連日讀托爾斯泰(Lyof N. Tolstoi)所著小說《安娜傳》(Anna Karenina)。此書為托氏名著。其書結構頗似《石頭記》,布局命意都有相似處,惟《石頭記》稍不如此書之逼真耳。《安娜傳》甚不易讀;其所寫皆家庭 及社會纖細瑣事,至千二百頁之多,非有耐心,不能終卷。此書寫俄國貴族社會之淫奢無恥,可謂鑄鼎照奸。書中主人李問(Levin),蓋托氏自寫生也。其人 由疑而復歸於信仰。一日聞一田夫之言,忽大解悟,知前此種種思慮疑問都歸無用,天國不遠,即在心中,何必外求?此托氏之宗教哲學也。其說亦有不完處,他日 當詳論之。  托氏寫人物之長處類似莎士比亞,其人物如安娜,如李問夫婦,如 安娜之夫,皆亦善亦惡,可褒可貶。正如莎氏之漢姆勒特王子,李耳王,倭色羅諸人物,皆非完人也。迭更司寫生,褒之欲超之九天,貶之欲墜諸深淵:此一法也。 薩克雷(Thackeray)寫生則不然,其書中人物無一完全之好人,亦無一不可救藥之惡人,如Vanity Fair中之Rebecca Sharp諸人:此又一法也。以經歷實際證之,吾從其後者,托氏亦主張此法者也。  

    托氏主張絕對的不抗拒主義者也(道義的抗拒)。
    惟此書主人李問之言曰:
       
    “Well, my theory is this: war, on the one hand, is such a terrible, such an atrocious thing that no man, at least no Christian man has the right to assume the responsibility of beginning it; but it belongs to government alone, when it become inevitable. On the other hand, both in law and in common sense, where there are state questions, and above all in matters concerning war, private citizens have no right to use their own wills.”(Vol. III, P. 381) 
      

    則托氏著書時,猶未全臻不抗拒之境也,李問之兄問曰:
       “Suppose you were walking in the street, and saw a drunken man beating a woman or a child. I think you would not stop to ask whether war had been declared on such a man before you attacked him and protected the object of his fury.  
    李問答曰:
       “No; but I should not kill him.” “Yes, you might even kill.” “I don’t know. If I saw such a sight, I might yield to the immediate feeling. I cannot tell how it would be. But in oppression of the Slavs, there is not, and cannot be, such a powerful motive.”  則托氏此時尚持兩端也。   (第二冊,頁148-150)
    • Anna Karénina, Translated by Nathan Haskell Dole (Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., New York, 1887; Walter Scott Publishing Company Ltd., London, 1889)
    • Anna Karenin, Translated by Constance Garnett. (1901) Still widely reprinted. Revised by Leonard J. Kent and Nina Berberova (New York: Random House, 1965). Revised version reprinted by Modern Library.
    C. Scribner's Sons, 1913

    Agafya Mikhailovna Alekset Aleksandrovitch Anna Arkadyevna Anna's answered asked Levin begancalash calm carriage CHAPTER child coachman conversation Countess Lidia Ivanovna cried Darya Aleksandrovna dinner divorce Dolly door everything expression eyes face feeling felt fieldfigure filled find finding fingers finished first five flew glad hand happy head heard heart horseshusband influence Karenin Katavasof kiss Kitty Kitty's knew Kostia ladies Laska laughing listenedlive looked Metrof mind Moscow mother muzhik never Oblonsky Petersburg PiotrPokrovskoye prince Princess Varvara question remembered replied rubles seemed SergyeiSergyei Ivanovitch Sergyet Ivanovitch Serozha significant smile soul speak Stepan Arkadye Stepan Arkadyevitch Stiva suddenly Sviazhsky talk tell thing thought tiontold took trying turned understand Vasenka Veslovsky versts vitch voice Vronsky Vronsky's walkwanted wife wish woman woodcock words Yashvin young zemstvo

    *****
    http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1399/1399-0.txt

    Anna Karenina by graf Leo Tolstoy



    ****

    我在約2018年12月17日的胡適紀念演講 (漢清講堂),將討論Anna Karenina  by Leo Tolstoy。



    很有意思:2017年12月17日,
    我在漢清講堂談《胡適留學日記》:自傳與諸多寶貝 (2017年胡適之先生紀念(II))

    我列出兩個"來賓主題":

    1. 胡適日記中的托爾斯泰
    2. 旁觀世界第一次大戰

    關於托爾斯泰:


    苦學生Gahnkin

    托爾斯泰臨終時事
    The Burial of Leo Tolstoy


    俄國學制:非曾讀其國諸大文豪之詩文者,不得入大學或專門學校。凡人能愛其國之文學,未有不愛其國者。1913.10.12


    12.27托爾斯泰臨終時事

    Yasnaya Polyana 晴園


    胡適讀托爾斯泰《安娜傳》
    Anna Karenina’ 研究 Leo Tolstoy的思想變遷
    1915.7.10,   p.191


    (以上細節,請參考此次的錄影



    1:16:23
    200 《胡適留學日記》中的諸多寶貝 2017-12-17 漢清講堂)



    2017.12.18 我讀到哈佛大學教授 Claudia Goldin推薦此本胡適說1200頁的小說 ( economic historian and a labour economist, author of the forthcoming Women Working Longer: Increased Employment at Older Ages):

    Look no further

    Read on to see what professors from Harvard think you should read next year.
    Anna Karenina  by Leo TolstoyThe book has been described as the 'best novel ever written' Shutterstock/TippaPatt"I'm re-reading Anna Karenina. There is no better novel I know about how women (and I don't mean just Anna) – elite, intelligent, educated – are ignored, oppressed, and have little legal recourse. Women are the caregivers, the empathetic. They hold society together and provide salvation even as the priests take the credit.
    "Tolstoy's novel is as relevant today as it ever was. As a sideline, one also learns about technical change in agriculture and how to incentivise labourers to adopt it. And there is more … It is clearly the best novel ever written and worth another close read from us all."- Claudia Goldin, economic historian and a labour economist, author of the forthcoming Women Working Longer: Increased Employment at Older Ages

    我提倡、實踐"從胡適出發的進一步閱讀和思考"方式。
    它並不太稀奇,其實余英時先生就"中國思想史",採取有點類似的方法,成績不錯。
    這一進路,我今年的課題有二:

    一.    ANNA KARENINA (1877) by Leo Tolstoy
    2017年胡適之先生紀念會上,我們提到胡先生留學日記上的閱讀 ANNA KARENINA Tolstoy筆記。
    隔天,我補充哈佛大學某教授說該書有不少社會變遷、制度、科技等的發展資訊。
    我想,這部公認的小說傑作,可以探討的方式很多樣,

    中譯本:
    安娜‧卡列尼娜(全二冊)   高惠群等譯,上海譯文,2010.8~2017.4 第8刷
    安娜‧卡列尼娜 草嬰譯,南京:譯林,2014.4~2017.9 第14刷
    《安娜‧卡列妮娜(全二冊) ,台北:志文,1986.9~1990.1 第2刷   此套是唯一有插圖的,可惜印刷不佳。  新潮文庫另有安娜‧卡列妮娜(濃縮本,參考日本版)  ,印刷稍佳。



    Anna Karenina 的閱讀最佳參考,應該是

    兩位名家的書。


    Lectures on Russian literature
    2002
    Book by Vladimir Nabokov (1899-1977),
    本書有中譯:《俄羅斯文學講稿》上海譯文,2018。托爾斯泰的安娜‧卡列寧,參考pp. 164~276
    另外也可參考:
    Modern Tragedy By Williams, Raymond /McCallum, Pamela (EDT) /Publisher:Broadview Pr Published 2006
    《現代悲劇 》南京: 譯林, 2007 (據第一版翻譯)
    該書的這章,很可參考:Social and Personal Tragedy: Tolstoy and Lawrence
    我們甚至可以趁機思考胡先生的"悲劇"。

    • Leavis, F. R., Anna Karenina and Other Essays (Chatto and Windus, London, 1967)
    by RLP Jackson - ‎2014 - ‎Cited by 1 - ‎Related articles
    Mar 1, 2014 - This essay returns to F. R. Leavis's 1965 essay on Anna Karenina as its ... continuing critical attention, with its treatment of, among other things, ... to be completely innocent of instrumental or ideological concerns of my own. .... But in Tolstoy such a moment typically remains simply onemoment among many.

    Abstract








    This essay returns to F. R. Leavis's 1965 essay on Anna Karenina as its point of departure, arguing that the novel is ultimately more tragic in its effect than Leavis allows. Beginning with an account of some representative moments which define the unbridgeable gaps between certain major characters, it moves to consider the differences between the new Penguin and the Maudes’ World's Classics translation of a passage which is seen as embodying Tolstoy's consistent attempt to imagine life as always lived in time. The essay then proceeds to consider the three ‘defining moments’ which together provide the rationale for its title. These related moments - Koznyshev's aborted proposal to Varenka, Anna's suicide and the death of Frou-Frou in the famous horse race – are at the heart of this essay's claim for the tragic status of Anna Karenina.


    【百果樹紅磚屋 / 黃昏電影院】本週影片
    .
    舊時光影展
    《安娜卡列妮娜Anna Karenina》(1948 , 139分鐘)
      《安娜卡列妮娜Anna Karenina》根據俄羅斯作家列夫•托爾斯泰於1874年-1877年間創作的小說所改編而成的,曾於1935、1948、1997、2012年改編成電影,1948年的版本是由費雯•麗領銜主演。
      故事以雙線進行,一為安娜,一為列文,描寫出不同的婚姻和家庭生活,更進一步則指出當時俄國政治,宗教,農事景象。兩個迷失在愛情的痛苦之中的人,他們強烈的愛統治了他們的生活,永遠改變了他們的友誼,家庭及未來……
    資料來源:維基百科/時光網

    "There was something in her higher than what surrounded her. There was in her the glow of the real diamond among glass imitations. This glow shone out in her exquisite, truly enigmatic eyes. The weary, and at the same time passionate, glance of those eyes, encircled by dark rings, impressed one by its perfect sincerity. Everyone looking into those eyes fancied he knew her wholly, and knowing her, could not but love her."
    --Anna’s thoughts about Liza from ANNA KARENINA (1878) by Leo Tolstoy
    A famous legend surrounding the creation of Anna Karenina tells us that Tolstoy began writing a cautionary tale about adultery and ended up falling in love with his magnificent heroine. It is rare to find a reader of the book who doesn’t experience the same kind of emotional upheaval. Anna Karenina is filled with major and minor characters who exist in their own right and fully embody their mid-nineteenth-century Russian milieu, but it still belongs entirely to the woman whose name it bears, whose portrait is one of the truest ever made by a writer. Translated by Louise and Aylmer Maude. READ more here: https://www.penguinrandomhouse.com/…/anna-karenina-by-leo-…/

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