2015年1月24日 星期六

Helmut E. Lück《心理學史》2009;心理學巨子之一 Titchener, Edward Bradford, 1867-1927;

胡適日記》 1912.10.1 記心理學教授Titchener 是"心理學巨子之一,所著書各國爭譯之。" 10.4記"讀心理學書,此書文筆暢而傑,佳作也。"


查Wikipedia


Edward B. Titchener
Edward B. Titchener.jpg
BornEdward Bradford Titchener
11 January 1867
Chichester, England
Died3 August 1927 (aged 60)
Ithaca, New York
CitizenshipEnglish
NationalityBritish
Fieldspsychology
InstitutionsCornell University
Doctoral advisorWilhelm Wundt
Doctoral studentsEdwin Garrigues Boring 著名心理學史家
Known forstructuralismempathy,introspection


Edward Bradford Titchener D.Sc., PhD, LL.D.Litt.D. (/ˈtənər/; 11 January 1867 – 3 August 1927) was a British psychologist who studied under Wilhelm Wundt for several years. Titchener is best known for creating his version of psychology that described the structure of the mind: structuralism. He created the largest doctoral program in the United States (at the time) after becoming a professor at Cornell University, and his first graduate student, Margaret Floy Washburn, became the first woman to be granted a PhD in psychology (1894).



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_B._Titchener

愛德華·布拉德福德·鐵欽納(Edward Bradford Titchener,1867年-1927年),英國美國心理學家,為二十世紀初期五大心理學派中的結構學派(structuralism)領導者,修正過威廉·馮特的感情三維論。採用心身平行論。其重要著作專書有An outline of psychology(1897);Primer of psychology(1898);A beginner's psychology(1915)等。


  1. A primer of psychology : Titchener, Edward Bradford, 1867 ...

    archive.org › eBooks and Texts › The Library of Congress

    eBooks and Texts > The Library of Congress > A primer of psychology ... fullscreen. Author: Titchener, Edward Bradford, 1867-1927. Subject: Psychology

  2. ****
  3. 呂克Helmut E. Lück《心理學史》有人名索引,所以可查 Titchener,Watson 反對他的意識心理學中採用內省法。

  4. 心理學史



  5. 內容簡介

    這本導論式的名作,介紹了心理學歷史發展過程中最重要的流派。這本著作的重點,是對19世紀以來的心理學流派進行直觀生動的描述,並將其與社會史相結合。讀者很快就能意識到這本心理學史的價值︰人物、專著及心理學原理都清晰明了。本書已第三次修訂,並多次再版,是當今西方關于心理學歷史的流傳最廣的一部導論,歐美許多著名大學都將其選為標準教科書。

    Geschichte der Psychologie: Strömungen, Schulen, Entwicklungen [NOOK Book]


    作者簡介︰
    赫爾穆特‧E,呂克(Helmut E. Luck)教授,是德國著名的心理學史研究者,目前在哈根綜合大學教授心理學。
     

    目錄

    第三版序
    第一章 心理學史研究的可行性與方法
    1.1 為何研究心理學史?
    1.2 三個廣為人知的判斷錯誤的案例
    1.2.1 例一︰納粹時期的心理學
    1.2.2 例二︰聯邦共和國時期的實驗心理學
    1.2.3 例三︰蘇聯的精神分析學
    1.3 史學角度
    1.4 心理學史描述模型
    1.4.1 心理學史︰偉人的歷史
    1.4.2 思想史
    1.4.3 問題史
    1.4.4 社會史
    1.5 心理學史研究方法
    1.5.1 起源研究
    1.5.2 檔案利用
    1.5.3 覓蹤與無干擾測量方法
    1.5.4 口述歷史——親歷現場
    1.5.5 數學統計方法在時間序列分析中的應用
    1.6 為心理學史服務的各種心理學理論
    1.6.1 為傳記研究服務的發展心理學與人格心理學
    1.6.2 為學派發展史與研究機構發展史服務的社會心理學
    1.6.3 精神分析學與心理歷史學
    1.6.4 馬克思主義社會理論與批判心理學
    第二章 19世紀的流派與發展
    2.1 實證主義與樸素經驗主義
    2.2 進化論
    2.3 民族學與民族心理學
    2.4 群體心理學
    2.5 介于哲學與生理學之間的心理學
    2.6 感官生理學研究與心理物理學
    2.7 學習過程中的實驗心理學
    第三章 19世紀和20世紀的心理學學派
    3.1 萊比錫學派
    3.1.1 威廉馮特生平
    3.1.2 馮特學說的原理
    3.1.3 馮特的學術政治
    3.1.4 萊比錫學派的影響
    3.2 符茲堡學派
    3.2.1 原理與研究方法
    3.2.2 比勒一馮特之爭
    3.3 格式塔(整體)心理學
    3.3.1 格拉茨學派的生產理論
    3.3.2 格式塔心理學中的法蘭克福/柏林學派
    3.3.3 整體心理學中的萊比錫學派
    3.4 動力場理論
    3.4.1 動力場理論的原理
    3.4.2 沖突
    3.4.3 生活空間與拓撲學
    3.4.4 動力場理論與其發展
    3.4.5 行動研究、少數民族問題與群體動力學
    3.5 精神分析
    3.5.1 弗洛伊德生平
    3.5.2 學說中存在的問題
    3.5.3 精神分析的認識論基礎
    3.5.4 本能機制的原理
    3.5.5 精神分析診斷的原理
    3.6 個體心理學
    3.6.1 阿爾弗雷德阿德勒生平
    3.6.2 學說原理
    3.7 分析心理學
    3.7.1 榮格生平
    3.7.2 學說原理
    3.8 行為主義
    3.8.1 實驗動物心理學與反射學
    3.8.2 理論規劃與行為主義的烏托邦幻想
    3.8.3 理論擴展與社會技術的應用
    3.8.4 社會習得理論
    3.9 文化歷史學派
    第四章 20世紀心理學的分類
    4.1 心理診斷和人格心理學
    4.2 發展心理學
    4.3 教育心理學
    4.4 社會心理學
    4.5 經濟心理學
    4.6 臨床心理學
    第五章 發展現狀︰學派的終結
    5.1 認知心理學與心理行為理論
    5.1.1 計算機-隱喻
    5.1.2 認知轉向
    5.1.3 心理行為理論
    5.2 批判心理學
    5.3 人本主義心理學與超個人心理學
    5.3.1 人本主義心理學
    5.3.2 超個人心理學
    第六章 評價與展望
    參考書目
    人名索引
    譯後記
     

    《心理學史》探討了心理學的流派、學派及其發展軌跡。從事心理學研究的人很快就能意識到這本書的價值。從這些人物和概念中我們不僅可以獲知心理學的意義與深度,還可獲知其間的相互關系。但心理學史扮演著更多的角色,它發揮了“簡單的良心”(schlecht Gewissen)的作用,並對發展過程中疏忽大意、不恰當的地方、被遺忘的不公平等提出勸告。因此心理學史使人有機會對現代心理學甚至對心理學專業實踐做出更為深刻的理解。例如︰心理學測驗源自何處?其發展導致了什麼結果?為何在心理學碩士的課程安排中,精神分析和以前一樣仍然只是一門邊緣學科?哪些因素導致了“心理學家”這樣的職業和“心理學碩士”這樣學位的產生?這些問題都是新心理學史所要回答的。

    在接下來的導論中介紹了一些最重要的心理學流派,通過這些流派可以將心理學史表現得更為淋灕盡致。精心編排的目錄一目了然地按時間順序表現了不同心理學學派和分支的思想歷程,其中著重呈現了從十九二十世紀到現今心理學的不同流派。筆者之所以這樣做,是為了增強本書的可讀性,並且在某些可能極有必要的地方加以擴展,對其與社會政治之悶的關系進行深人的思考。

    近年來,越來越多的人對心理學史感興趣,這一點在本書中也得以體現︰在許多大學,本書已成為標準讀物,同時,本書的第;版已提交印刷。意大利文版本的工作正在進展中。現行這 版本系晟新版,擴充了某些章節,並根據《新正字法》對本書的相關內容進行r改寫。

    我要感謝本書的編輯特爾‧烏利希(Dieter Ulich)和赫伯特‧澤爾格(Herbert Selg),是他們激勵我完成本書。還要感謝同事們的建議和改進意見,謹提到以下諸位權作代表︰克里斯蒂安‧阿勒施、霍斯特‧彼得‧布勞恩斯、沃爾夫岡‧布林格曼、卡特琳‧德爾默、格奧爾格‧埃卡特、赫爾曼‧福伊爾黑爾姆、赫伯特‧菲策克、西格弗里德‧耶格爾、于爾根‧揚克、盧恰諾‧梅亞奇、安內羅斯‧邁斯納‧梅特格、魯道夫‧米勒、加比‧澤韋茲、黑爾仕和洛塔爾‧施普龍以及彼得‧凡‧施特林。

2015年1月22日 星期四

胡適與趙元任入 康南耳大學 Cornell University 康乃爾大學150年慶

Welcome back, students! If you were coming back to Cornell University around the turn of the century, your classroom might look something like this room in McGraw Hall. The professor is Burt Green Wilder, who taught natural history, zoology and neurology from 1867 to 1910.
Photo from the Cornell University Library - Rare and Manuscript Collections.


Help tell the Cornell story. When you think about the Ithaca campus, what place immediately comes to mind? Where are your off-the-beaten-path places to take people who are visiting the campus for the first time? Where do you like to study, spend time, relax?





不能擁有時,能做的只是不要忘記。——普魯斯特《追憶似水年華》
(原引言:當一個人不能擁有的時候,他唯一能做的便是不要忘記.)
人活著是多采的,可惜所有記憶都不全,最後只剩風中一聲嘆息。
昨天研究康乃爾大學。要問的是:為什麼.....著名校友胡適之先生的翻譯"康南耳"等,最後成為"康乃爾"? (校報對李登輝先生的來訪,只有2001年的一篇放在archive......) 昨天看到倫敦開設賣"真蘋果"的店,想到胡先生說他之所以從農學院轉到文學院,是老師要他們辨識北美的數百種蘋果種,胡先生或許頭昏腦脹,打退堂鼓了 (讀農、理工等是實用,可愛國.....)。他的同一級的同學趙元任在加大的口述歷史中,則給個轉系的"地理-時間"解釋:當時課間休息只7分,從一地(譬如說宿舍)趕往某學院上課,用跑的,都幾乎來不及.....



A hundred years ago, students were studying for finals in Uris (then just the "University Library"), just like students this week.
No databases or laptops for those long-ago students -- and current students don't have hats quite as creative as these -- but all these years later, the principle is the same!
More great historical images from Cornell University Library - Rare and Manuscript Collections in our online sesquicentennial exhibition:http://rmc.library.cornell.edu/…/ex…/introduction/index.html

Cornelliana with Corey Earle '07: The Founders
An in-depth look at the two men who built Cornell:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=up3VNo3VGWY




問題:為什麼當年胡適與趙元任留學美國選擇康乃爾大學。胡適很重視他早年寫的創校人 康南耳的傳記。


我在趙先生的自傳(加州大學口述,Rosemary Leveson和Laurence Schneider訪談)讀到他們選學校是自主的,他主要是受3位領隊之一的胡敦復(早上5年的公費,堂弟胡達(明復)是"同班*,班上有3位胡姓,應包括胡適--趙先生解釋當時胡適英文名Suh Hu,"h"是表示入聲調,喉塞音,不過一般人都讀....後來胡適英文名Shih 是威妥瑪氏拼法。
M.T.--full name, Minfu Ta Hu. And there was S.S. [Shien-sheng] Hu. Well, other than Hu Shih, the others were cousins. And so there were three Hus in our class and we couldn't tell "Who was Hu." [Laughter]
At that time Hu Shih spelled his name Suh Hu, instead of Hu Shih. "Shih" is the standard Wade-Giles spelling in the Chinese order. Suh Hu is the foreign order, with the last name last. The reason for that "h" is that it had an entering tone, and he was a student at Shanghai, where they had the entering tone, so "suh" really stands for the syllable [s[schwa]]; the "h" stands for the glottal stop [?]. But everyone called him Suh Hu.


* 胡適與趙元任是同級生,非同系、同班。









  • expand section - Online Archive of California

    www.oac.cdlib.org/view?docId=hb8779p27v;NAAN...

    That was a good reason to complete the examinations to study abroad. The first class ...There were quite a few classes. I think the ... It was the SS China that we took from Shanghai to San Francisco. Levenson ... M.T.--full nameMinfu Ta Hu.
  • Full text of "Chinese linguist, phonologist, composer and ...

    archive.org/stream/.../chineselinguistph00chaorich_djvu.txt

    Hu Shih was in our class. And we had M.T. Hu in our class. RL: Who? Chao: M.T. --full nameMinfu Ta Hu. And there was S.S. [ Shien-sheng] Hu. Well, other  .



  • Sheila Tobias, Professor Isaac Kramnick, Bruce Dancis and Jack Goldman speak with students about protests, antiwar activism and women’s studies in the course “Creating Contemporary Cornell.” Tobias, Dancis and Goldman are three of more than 20 alumni and former faculty and staff who have returned to campus Nov. 10 and 11 to take part in forums, a teach-in and to speak to classes about activism, student protests and the civil rights, Vietnam War and women’s rights movements at Cornell in the 1960s. Their visit was organized by Kramnick as part of the College of Arts and Sciences’ celebration of Cornell’s sesquicentennial.
    http://www.news.cornell.edu/…/…/vietnam-war-campus-revisited


    民國三年七月十七日,他在康南耳大學讀書時,有這樣的一段日記:
    有人贈我莎士比[亞]名劇《亨利第五》,全書三百八十餘頁,用薄紙印之,故全書僅廣寸有半,長二寸,厚不及半寸(英度),取攜最便,因以置衣囊中,平日不讀之,惟於廁上及電車中讀之,約一月而讀畢,此亦利用廢棄光陰之一法也。 (《藏暉室札記》卷五)

    2015年1月19日 星期一

    日朗氣清,天無纖雲,真佳日也

    日朗氣清,天無纖雲,真佳日也。---摘胡適留學日記送吳鳴兄祝生日。1912.10.6 星期

    2015年1月18日 星期日

    《王陽明,中國之唯心學者》 Wang Yang Ming, a Chinese Idealist by Frederick G. Henke


     Frederick G. Henke (可能1875?-1951? ),翻譯王陽明之《傳習錄》、《大學問》等(Open Court出版社 ),他不知所根據的是選本。


    1914.4.10 胡適認為此篇《王陽明,中國之唯心學者》,"殊有心得,他日當與通問信也。"

    Wang Yang Ming, a Chinese Idealist. - PhilPapers

    philpapers.org/rec/HENWYM


    The Monist

    Volume 24, Issue 1, January 1914

    Frederick G. Henke
    Pages 17-34
    DOI: 10.5840/monist191424117
    Wang Yang Ming, a Chinese Idealist




    WANG YANG MING, A CHINESE IDEALIST. 1 
    
    TO the philosophic basis of her civilization, more than 
    to any other single factor, is due the survival of 
    China's social institutions and the preservation of her na- 
    tional integrity. The influence of Confucius and Mencius 
    upon Chinese life and thought has been more penetrating 
    and profound than the impress of Greek philosophy upon 
    European life and culture. As in the development of philo- 
    sophic thought in India interpretation always harks back 
    to the Rig Veda for its authority, so for the philosophic 
    expositions of Chinese philosophers the criterion of ortho- 
    doxy is in accord with the Four Books and the Five Clas- 
    sics. This, however, does not exclude the possibility of 
    spirited discussion with reference to the precise connotation 
    of certain classic expressions and the subsequent forma- 
    tion of systems varying as widely as realism and idealism. 
    The object of this essay is to familiarize the reader with one 
    of these systems, the most important one that has appeared 
    in China within the modern period, — that of the philos- 
    opher Wang Yang Ming. 
    
    The date of Wang Yang Ming's life is approximately 
    1472-1528. As compared with contemporary European 
    history, he lived in the period of the great maritime discov- 
    eries and at the beginning of the Reformation. He was 
    fearlessly propounding his view in China shortly before 
    
    1 Extracts from a paper read before the Royal Asiatic Society, Shanghai, 
    published in this form with permission of the Council. It constitutes a part 
    of the result of two years' research in the Chinese text of the philosophy and 
    letters of Wang Yang Ming. 
    
    
    
    1 8 THE MONIST. 
    
    Giordano Bruno, after a life of restless wandering in search 
    of truth, suffered martyrdom for his philosophic exposition 
    of the universe, and about a century previous to Hobbes, 
    Descartes and Spinoza. The spirit which actuated him 
    was closely akin to that of the Reformation. Thoroughly 
    dissatisfied with what seemed to him useless striving for 
    form and style in literary composition and with the vain 
    discussions of scholars, who ignored the great moral, re- 
    ligious and political issues of his day and gave an incorrect 
    interpretation of the fundamental principles of human life 
    and the universe, he strove to bring the leaders of his 
    people back to the original path of duty outlined in the Four 
    Books and the Five Classics. 
    
    At the age of thirty-seven, while serving as a disgraced 
    official, because of the enmity of the eunuch Liu Tsing, in 
    the government despatch service in the province of Kwei- 
    chow, he received his great enlightenment. His biog- 
    rapher describes Lungch'ang where he was stationed as a 
    resort of venomous snakes and poisonous worms, inhabited 
    by babbling barbarians with whom he could not converse. 
    The situation was extremely critical. He feared that at 
    any moment a decree from the capital might order his 
    death. Moreover, his followers all fell ill. Nothing 
    daunted, he chopped wood himself, carried water, and 
    made soft-boiled rice for them, cheering them with songs 
    and stories of home. Also, in view of his own precarious 
    position, he had a sarcophagus made. In the midst of all 
    these difficulties, the chief subject of his meditation was, 
    "What additional methods would a sage adopt under simi- 
    lar circumstances?" At midnight while on his couch, he 
    suddenly realized what the sage meant by "investigating 
    things for the sake of extending knowledge to the utmost." 
    Overjoyed, he unconsciously called out and, getting up, 
    paced the room. "I was wrong," he said, "in looking for 
    fundamental principles in things and affairs. My nature is 
    
    
    
    WANG YANG MING, A CHINESE IDEALIST. 19 
    
    sufficient." From that time he was a faithful defender of 
    idealism against the realism of the philosopher Chu, whose 
    commentaries on the classics were considered as an author- 
    ity at that time. 
    
    The philosophy of Wang Yang Ming, the teacher of 
    Yang Ming grotto, is to-day held in high esteem by the 
    Japanese as an ideal statement of the fundamental prin- 
    ciples of life and the universe, and has been a profound 
    factor in their moral development during the last hundred 
    years. In China a tide of rising popularity is rapidly 
    bringing it out of obscurity into the forefront. Not as a 
    closet-philosopher but as a military hero, patriot, and re- 
    former-statesman, his ideal was to bring the scholars of 
    his day back to the true learning of the sages. Educated 
    men of his day spent their time in perfecting library style, 
    their one ambition being success in examinations and a 
    high literary degree, that thereby they might gain emolu- 
    ment and fame ; but he considered such procedure ethically 
    unsound. For him the greatest thing was not study to 
    become a Chinshih, but study to become a sage. 2 His was 
    an attitude of mind that dwelt upon great moral values, 
    and found fullness of life and moral integrity of greater 
    worth than fame and gain. One day while feasting with 
    several of his disciples, he took occasion to lay bare the 
    futility of his day. "We eat and drink," he said, "only in 
    order to nourish the body. The food which has been eaten 
    must be digested. If it collects in the stomach it causes 
    dyspepsia, and how can it then become muscle? Later 
    scholars study extensively and know much, but what they 
    read and know remains undigested. They all have dys- 
    pepsia." 3 
    
    'Chinshih (錦坤兄說是進士)under the old system of literary examinations was a degree 
    corresponding approximately to the European "Doctor of Philosophy." Once 
    attained, honor, influence and position were assured. 
    
    * The Philosophy of Wang Yang Ming, Book 2, Yu Lu, p. 6. All refer- 
    ences to the Philosophy of Wang Yang Ming in this paper are to the Chinese 
    
    
    
    20 THE MONIST. 
    
    Confusion and display seemed to him to be prominently 
    characteristic of contemporary learning. Failing to func- 
    tion properly in the life process, it wrought havoc wher- 
    ever it prevailed. He compared the students of his day 
    to a theatre where a hundred different acts are presented. 
    "The players cheer, jest, hop and skip. They emulate one 
    another in cleverness and ingenuity. They laugh in the 
    play and strive for the palm of beauty. On all sides they 
    emulate one another. The people look toward the front 
    and gaze toward the rear, but cannot see it all. Their ears 
    and their eyes are confused; their mental and physical 
    energy is disturbed. Day and night they spend in amuse- 
    ment. They are steeped in it and rest in it as though they 
    were insane. They do not even know what has become of 
    their family property. Under the influence of such schol- 
    ars, princes and kings are confused and confounded and all 
    their lives devote themselves to vain, useless literary style. 
    They do not know what they say. The learning of the 
    sages is daily left more in the distance and becomes more 
    obscured, while practices are directed toward acquiring 
    honor and gain. The farther they go the more they fall 
    into error. Though some of them have been deceived by 
    Buddhism and Taoism, yet even the sayings of Gautama 
    and Lao Tze are unable to influence permanently the mind 
    that is devoted to honor and gain." 4 
    
    In order to appreciate Wang Yang Ming's point of 
    view, it is necessary to keep this steadily in mind, for his 
    interest was that of a reformer and thus largely ethical. 
    He attempted to place learning and conduct upon a firm 
    basis. The glamour of a superficial philosophic foundation 
    had no fascination for a man of his practical bent of mind. 
    He sought bed-rock; he wished to find the very source of 
    life and the universe. After having sought vainly in Bud- 
    edition of his work, — the only one available. While they are not of general 
    interest, they will serve to locate the references for such as read Chinese. 
    * The Philosophy of Wang Yang Ming, Book 3, p. 71. 
    
    
    
    WANG YANG MING, A CHINESE IDEALIST. 21 
    
    dhism and Taoism for relief ; after having tried the philos- 
    opher Chu's instructions to search for principles in external 
    things, but without success; at last in the middle of the 
    night while among the barbarians in far Kwei Chow he 
    came to a state of realization. It was as though the fog 
    had suddenly cleared away. "My nature is sufficient," he 
    said. Upon this foundation the whole structure of his on- 
    tology, cosmology, and ethics rests. 
    
    What does Wang Yang Ming mean when he speaks of 
    nature? He discusses it in a somewhat fragmentary man- 
    ner a number of times both in his discourses and in his 
    letters, so that by bringing together the principal ideas 
    involved we are able to get an approximate idea of what his 
    conception includes. Luh Ch'en, one of his disciples, asked 
    him the question, "Are the feelings of commiseration, 
    shame, dislike, modesty, complaisance, approval, and dis- 
    approval to be considered nature manifesting virtue?" To 
    this Wang Yang Ming replied : "There is only one nature 
    and no other. Referring to its form and substance, it is 
    Heaven; considered as ruler or lord, it is Shang-ti (God) ; 
    viewed as functioning, it is fate ; as given to men, it is dis- 
    position; and as controlling the person, it is mind; mani- 
    fested by mind, it is called filial piety when it meets parents, 
    and loyalty when it meets the prince. Proceeding from this 
    on, it is inexhaustible, but it is all one nature. Man should 
    use his energy on his nature. If he is able to understand 
    the connotation of the word 'nature,' he will be able to 
    distinguish ten thousand principles." 5 A careful perusal 
    of this makes it evident that this subtle something which 
    Wang designates "nature" is so profound, so rich, so all- 
    inclusive, that viewed as a whole the absolutist would prop- 
    ably greet it as his old friend the absolute, even though 
    it be in Chinese garb. At another time Wang Yang Ming 
    said: "Heaven and earth are one structure with me; spirits 
    
    ' Ibid., Book i, p. 26. 
    
    
    
    22 THE MONIST. 
    
    and gods are in one all-pervading unity with me." 6 It is, 
    under such circumstances, reasonable to suppose that the 
    discussions of nature by men of the past would be various. 
    "There were those," he said, "that discussed it from the 
    point of its underlying substance; there were those that 
    based their discussions on its manifestations; there were 
    those that proceeded from its source; there were those 
    that proceeded from the point of its defects and corrup- 
    tions. Taking it all together, they all referred to this one 
    nature, but there were degrees of depth in what they saw." 7 
    
    Thus far, however, the discussion emphasizes the pro- 
    fundity, abstruseness, comprehensiveness, and wealth of 
    manifestation of nature in a very general way, but fails to 
    point out accurately its fundamental character. Intelli- 
    gence appears to be of prime importance. But is it really 
    so, or is it perhaps only a by-product, while mechanism 
    is basal? Wang does not fail to elucidate this point. 
    "There is one nature," he asserts, "and that is all. Charity, 
    righteousness, propriety, and wisdom are ab initio char- 
    acteristic of it; quick apprehension, clear discrimination, 
    far-reaching intelligence, and all-embracing knowledge are 
    native to it. Pleasure, anger, sorrow, and joy are the feel- 
    ings of this nature." 8 Of its qualities of character, benevo- 
    lence, which the sages have designated as the highest vir- 
    tue, is the principle of continuous creating and growth. 
    This principle is boundless in extent and everywhere pres- 
    ent, but in its process and manifestation it advances grad- 
    ually. 9 
    
    However, it was in men's mind that he primarily was 
    interested. "My own nature is sufficient," 10 he said when 
    he came to a state of realization. If nature at large be des- 
    ignated as the macrocosm, then human nature is the micro- 
    
    'Ibid., Book 2, p. 26. ' Ibid., Book 2, p. 31. 
    
    'Ibid., Book 3, p. 20. 'Ibid., Book 1, p. 37. 
    
    "Ibid., Biography, p. 8. 
    
    
    
    WANG YANG MING, A CHINESE IDEALIST. 23 
    
    cosm, and for him human nature was the human mind. 
    He was taking recreation at Nan Ch'en when one of his 
    friends pointed to the flowers and trees on a cliff and said, 
    "You say that there is nothing under heaven outside the 
    mind. What relation to my mind have these flowers and 
    trees on the high mountain, which blossom and drop of 
    themselves ?" Wang replied : "When you cease regarding 
    these flowers, they become quiet with your mind. When 
    you see them, their colors at once become clear. From 
    this you can know that these flowers are not external to 
    your mind."" This is undisguised idealism in which the 
    microcosm creates as truly as the macrocosm. In the great 
    all-pervading unity the most differentiated, highly special- 
    ized portion is the human mind. It manifests the only 
    creative activity that men can really know. It is self- 
    sufficient and embraces the universe. He said again and 
    again that the mind of man is ab initio law, that it is the 
    embodiment of the principles of Heaven. Thus its very 
    essence is natural law, though not in any partial, super- 
    ficial sense. There are no other principles operative any 
    where, for the mind is so all-embracing that it has no within 
    and without." 
    
    Chiu Ch'uan had great difficulty in comprehending 
    Wang's explanation of things, for from his common-sense 
    point of view things were external. He questioned his 
    teacher's position that a thing is identical with the pres- 
    ence of an idea. "Since things are external," he said, "how 
    can they be one with the person, the mind, purpose and 
    knowledge?" To which the teacher replied: "The ears, 
    eyes, mouth, nose and four members constitute the person, 
    or body; yet without the mind how can the person see, 
    hear, speak, or move? On the other hand, if the mind 
    wishes to see, hear, speak, or move, it is unable to do so 
    without the use of ears, eyes, mouth, nose, and the four 
    
    u Ibid., Book, 2, p. 17. "Ibid., Book 2, p. 4. 
    
    
    
    24 THE MONIST. 
    
    members. From this it follows that if there is no mind, 
    there is no person, or body, and that if there is no person, 
    or body, there is no mind. If one refers only to the place 
    it occupies, it is called person, or body; if one refers to the 
    matter of control, it is called mind; if one refers to the 
    activities of the mind, it is called purpose ; if one refers to 
    the intelligence of the purpose, it is called understanding; 
    if one refers to the relations (implications) of the purpose, 
    it is called things." 13 From this it is evident that from 
    Wang Yang Ming's point of view the volitional activity 
    of the mind is true creative activity. In case the purpose 
    is used with reference to the flowers growing on the side 
    of the mountain precipice, then these flowers are a thing. 
    Take away the purpose and ipso facto the flowers are no 
    more. "When the purpose is used with reference to serv- 
    ing one's parents, then serving one's parents must be con- 
    sidered a thing. If it is used with reference to governing 
    the people, then governing the people must be considered 
    a thing. When the purpose is used in study, then study 
    must be considered a thing ; and when it is used in hearing 
    litigation then this is a thing. Wherever the purpose is 
    applied, there some definite thing is present. If there is a 
    particular purpose, there is a particular thing present cor- 
    responding to it; and without this particular purpose the 
    particular thing is lacking. Is not then," Wang asked, "a 
    thing identical with the functioning of the purpose?" 14 
    
    These, in brief, are the fundamental principles of his 
    metaphysics. That he considered volitional activity as 
    basal is evident, but will be more so as epistemological and 
    
    ethical phases of his system are discussed. 
    
    * * * 
    
    For Wang Yang Ming the epistemological problem 
    centered primarily about the question of investigating 
    things for the avowed purpose of extending knowledge to 
    
    "Ibid., Book 2, p. 2. " Ibid., Book 3, p. 58. 
    
    
    
    WANG YANG MING, A CHINESE IDEALIST. 25 
    
    the utmost. Readers of the Chinese classics will recognize 
    that this idea is mentioned in the Great Learning in the 
    introductory text of Confucius. The difficulty lies not so 
    much in the words themselves, for these seem clear enough, 
    but in their correct interpretation. Like the oracles of 
    Apollo at Delphi, a closer examination shows them to have 
    an obscure, ingeniously ambiguous connotation. The ques- 
    tion is : What does "investigation of things for the purpose 
    of extending knowledge to the utmost" imply? 
    
    The philosopher Chu in his commentary on the fifth 
    chapter of the Great Learning had said: "If we wish to 
    carry our knowledge to the utmost we must investigate 
    the principles of all things with which we come into con- 
    tact." 15 Since one of the necessary qualifications of a sage 
    is just this, that he have extended his knowledge to the ut- 
    most, it was but natural that Wang, whose one ambition 
    was to become a sage, should attempt to carry this out 
    into practice. He chose as his point of departure the more 
    manifest interpretation of the philosopher Chu, and tried 
    to follow out the instructions therein given. He and his 
    friend Ch'ien discussed the possibility of investigating 
    everything under heaven. Pointing to a bamboo in front 
    of the pavilion, he told Ch'ien to investigate it. Both day 
    and night Ch'ien worked at the task and after three days 
    he was physically and mentally so exhausted that he took 
    sick. Wang feared that this was solely due to lack of 
    strength and energy, and himself undertook to carry on the 
    investigation. Though he worked day and night he, too, 
    was unable to understand the principles of the bamboo, and 
    after seven days became ill from over-exertion. Discour- 
    aged, both Ch'ien and he gave up. "We can become neither 
    sages nor virtuous men," they said, "for we lack the great 
    strength required to carry on the investigation of things. 16 
    
    " The Great Learning, Chap. 5. 
    
    " The Philosophy of Wang Yang Ming, Book 2, p. 22. 
    
    
    
    26 THE MONIST. 
    
    Not until his enlightenment while at Lungch'ang did he 
    realize the futility of attempting thus to investigate the 
    things under heaven. There had been sages in the past, 
    this he knew. From his own experience he saw that a 
    thorough investigation of so commonplace a thing as a 
    bamboo was not possible. How much less the investigation 
    of all things ! From now on his task was that of expound- 
    ing a better way. 
    
    Relief was found in adopting the view that knowledge 
    can be extended to the utmost only by a thorough devotion 
    to nature. If the principles of things and affairs are to 
    be exhaustively investigated, and thereby knowledge com- 
    pleted, it must be as a result of understanding and develop- 
    ing the mind. Not things without, but mind itself, offers 
    the solution. The point of departure is the intuitive faculty 
    or, in other words, nature itself. "This seeking for funda- 
    mental principles in things and affairs," said he, "is exem- 
    plified in seeking the principle of filial piety in one's parents. 
    In case a person seeks the principle of filial piety in the 
    parents, is it then in his own mind or is it in the person of 
    the parents ? In case it is in the person of the parents, is 
    it then true that after the parents are dead, the mind lacks 
    the principle of filial piety? If one sees a child fall into 
    a well, there must be commiseration. Is this principle of 
    commiseration in the child, or is it found in the intuitive 
    faculty of the mind? Whether the individual is unable 
    to follow the child and rescue it from the well or seizes it 
    with his hand and saves it, this principle is involved. Is 
    it then in the person of the child or is it rather in the intui- 
    tive faculty of the mind?" 17 At another time he discussed 
    this matter with Liang Jih Fu. "Tell me," he said, "what 
    is meant by a thorough investigation of the principles of 
    events and things?" Liang replied: "It would imply that 
    in caring for one's parents one must thoroughly investigate 
    
    "Ibid., Book, 3, p. 54. 
    
    
    
    WANG YANG MING, A CHINESE IDEALIST. 27 
    
    the principles of filial piety, or in serving one's prince one 
    must thoroughly investigate the principles of loyalty." 
    Thereupon Wang said : "Are the principles of loyalty and 
    filial piety to be investigated on the bodies of the prince 
    and parents, or in one's own mind? If they are to be in- 
    vestigated in the mind, that would imply a thorough in- 
    vestigation of the principles of the mind." 18 
    
    The problem of knowledge must be solved by depending 
    upon the intuitive faculty and developing it. The devel- 
    opment of knowledge refers to the development of intuitive 
    knowledge, for the field of knowledge and the field of 
    intuitive knowledge are conterminous. In so far as the 
    intuitive faculty remains undeveloped, knowledge is unde- 
    veloped ; and in so far as it is developed, the individual has 
    knowledge of things and affairs. Intuitive knowledge 
    does not come from seeing and hearing, though sense-per- 
    ception is itself a function of the intuitive faculty. Apart 
    from it there is no knowledge." It knows without cogita- 
    tion, and is able to act without learning. 20 Wang praises 
    it as being absolutely perfect. When Chiu Ch'uan asked 
    him about the method of extending knowledge, he said: 
    "The intuitive faculty is your standard. If your thoughts 
    are right it is aware of it, and if they are wrong it also 
    knows it. You must not blind it nor impose upon it, but 
    must truly follow its lead. Whatever is good should be 
    cherished; whatever is evil should be discarded. What 
    confidence and joy there is in this ! This is the true secret 
    of the investigation of things and the real method of ex- 
    tending knowledge to the utmost. If you do not depend 
    upon these true secrets, how will you engage in an investi- 
    gation of things? I, too, have appreciated only in the 
    past few years that it is to be thus explained. At first I 
    doubted that a simple obedience to the intuitive faculty 
    
    "Ibid., Book 1, p. 49. "Ibid., Book 3, p. 42. 
    
    "Ibid., Book 3, p. 46. 
    
    
    
    28 THE MONIST. 
    
    would be sufficient. When I had very carefully examined 
    it, I found that it has no deficiency whatsoever." 21 
    
    The ethics of Wang Yang Ming's system is also firmly 
    lodged in his exposition of the intuitive faculty, which he 
    considers is the point of clearness that natural law attains 
    in its moral aspects. For this reason intuitive knowledge 
    of good is to be identified with moral principles. The in- 
    tuitive faculty is tranquil; it is the equilibrium in which 
    there is no stirring of the feelings. He who would under- 
    stand the path of duty must exercise this faculty, for it 
    alone marks clearly the path of duty. He who would 
    choose the right and expel the evil must make use of it, for 
    there is nothing in the categories of right and wrong that 
    it does not naturally know. The highest good is simply 
    the development of the intuitive faculty to the utmost. The 
    finished product is a sage. "All-embracing and vast, he 
    is like heaven ; deep and active like a fountain, he is like the 
    abyss." 22 Serving his fellow-men and regulating his pas- 
    sion-nature, he is actuated by the desire to be a man who 
    in his eager and unceasing pursuit of knowledge forgets 
    his food. Forgetting his sorrow in the joy of the attain- 
    ment of knowledge, he is never distressed. With reference 
    to the principles of Heaven he is both omniscient and om- 
    nipotent. 23 Completely dominated by moral principles and 
    wholly unhampered by passion, his integrity and moral 
    worth are of the quality of the finest gold. The capacity 
    may vary from man to man, but the quality is always of the 
    highest and purest type. 24 
    
    A deaf and dumb man, Yang Mao by name, visited 
    Wang Yang Ming, who conferred with him by means of 
    writing. The ensuing conversation, which may well serve 
    
    *Ibid., Book 2, pp. 4 and 5. 
    
    " Doctrine of the Mean, Chap. 31, § 3. 
    
    " Philosophy of Wang Yang Ming, Book 2, p. 8. 
    
    "Ibid., Book i, pp. 40! 
    
    
    
    WANG YANG MING, A CHINESE IDEALIST. 20, 
    
    to exemplify his method of dealing with the ethical prob- 
    lem, was as follows: 2 " 
    
    Wang Yang Ming said: "You are unable to speak or 
    discuss either that which is right or that which is wrong. 
    You cannot hear that which is right nor that which is 
    wrong. Is your mind still able to distinguish right from 
    wrong?" 
    
    Mao replied : "I know right and wrong." 
    
    "In that case," said Wang, "though your mouth is different from that of other men, and your ears are not like 
    other men's ears, yet your mind is like that of other men." 
    
    Mao replied in the affirmative by nodding his head and 
    thanking with his hands. 
    
    "In man," wrote Wang, "the mind alone is important. 
    If it cherishes the principles of Heaven, it is the mind of 
    sages and virtuous men. In that case, though the mouth 
    cannot speak and the ears cannot hear, it is only sageness 
    and virtue that cannot speak or hear. If on the other hand 
    the mind does not cherish the principles of Heaven, it is the 
    mind of birds and animals. Though under such circumstances there were the power of speech and audition, yet it 
    would be merely an instance of a speaking and hearing 
    bird or animal." 
    
    Mao struck his breast and pointed toward heaven. 
    
    Wang said : "Toward your parents you should exhaust 
    the filial piety of your mind ; toward your elder brother, its 
    respectfulness; toward your village clan, your neighbors, 
    your kindred and your relatives, its complaisance, harmony, respectfulness,
     and docility. When you see others 
    prosperous, you should not covet their wealth and advan- 
    tage. Within yourself you should practice that which is 
    right and not that which is wrong. It is really not neces- 
    sary that you should hear it when others say that you are 
    
    ■ Ibid., Book 4, pp. 83 and 84. 
    
    
    
    30 THE MONIST. 
    
    right, nor do you need to hear it when they speak of your 
    mistakes." 
    
    Mao nodded his head and bowed in thanks. 
    
    "Since you are unable to discuss or hear right or wrong, 
    you are saved the necessity of making distinctions between 
    a great deal of idle, useless right and wrong. The dis- 
    cussion of truth and error begets truth and error and 
    brings forth trouble and vexation. By hearing good and 
    evil one adds to one's right and wrong and to one's trou- 
    bles. Since you cannot speak or hear, you are spared a 
    good deal of useless good and evil, as well as much trouble 
    and vexation. You are much more cheerful, happy, and 
    self-possessed than others." 
    
    Mao struck his breast, pointed toward heaven, and re- 
    placed his feet on the ground. 
    
    Thereupon Wang said : "My instruction to you to-day 
    is that it is only necessary to act in accordance with your 
    mind and not necessary to speak; that it is only necessary 
    that you comply with your mind and not necessary to hear." 
    
    Mao prostrated himself, saluted, and departed. 
    
    In its practical aspects, Wang's ethical system places 
    special emphasis upon action as the sine qua non of moral 
    progress. Knowledge and action, theory and practice, are 
    so interrelated that the former does not exist without the 
    latter. Nature can be developed only as the individual 
    directly applies what he knows. In case he fails to act, the 
    knowledge that he supposes himself to have has not really 
    been acquired. Here Wang is not far from pragmatism, 
    which urges that the truth of an idea consists in its veri- 
    fiability. As Paul S. Reinsch has stated in Intellectual and 
    Political Currents in the Far East (page 138), this phase 
    of his philosophy has doubtless had a profound influence 
    upon students in Japan and China. 
    
    The absolute moral perfection of the intuitive faculty 
    presented a serious problem to some of Wang's disciples. 
    
    
    
    WANG YANG MING, A CHINESE IDEALIST. 31 
    
    That the main divisions of the doctrine and the general 
    direction of the path of duty could be readily understood 
    in this way seemed clear to them; but with regard to 
    changeable sections and paragraphs and the details of con- 
    duct under changing circumstances, they felt considerable 
    apprehension. Is the intuitive faculty really able to me- 
    diate reliable knowledge in such cases, or is it necessary 
    for a person to seek earnestly for what is right and wrong 
    in things themselves? Is knowledge of right and wrong 
    innate, or is it acquired from experience? In a letter to 
    his teacher, Ku Tang Ch'iao urges that when one reaches 
    the facts that Shun married without informing his par- 
    ents, 26 that Wu put troops into the field before he buried 
    his father, that the son endures the small stick but evades 
    the large one, that he cuts flesh from his thigh to feed his 
    ill parent, that he erects a straw hut beside the grave of his 
    parent, or any similar thing, then the knowledge mediated 
    by the intuitive faculty is inadequate and a person must 
    depend upon his experience. 27 Wang considered this posi- 
    tion incorrect, for he felt that the intuitive faculty has the 
    same relation to the details of right and wrong and to 
    changing circumstances as compasses and squares have to 
    squares and circles, and measures to length and breadth. 
    "The changes in circumstances relative to details," he said, 
    "cannot be determined beforehand, just as the size of the 
    square or the circle, and length and breadth, cannot be 
    perfectly estimated. But when compasses and squares 
    have been set, there can be no deception about the size of 
    the square or the circle, and when rule and measure have 
    been fixed there can be no deception about length or short- 
    ness. When the intuitive faculty has been completely de- 
    veloped there can be no deception regarding its application 
    to changing details. As for Shun's marrying without tell- 
    
    " Shun and Wu were two famous emperors of ancient China. 
    * Philosophy of Wang Yang Ming, Book 3, p. 61. 
    
    
    
    32 THE MONIST. 
    
    ing his parents, was there any one previous to his time who 
    served as an example of such a deed? In what historical 
    and mythological document did he find a precedent, or of 
    what individual did he make inquiry? Or did he rather 
    make use of the intuitive faculty to consider what should 
    be done, and there being no other way act thus ?" 28 What 
    is true in this instance Wang taught as true in all others. 
    From his point of view the intuitive faculty is quite com- 
    petent to grapple with any moral problem whatsoever. 
    
    Last, but not least, is the problem of evil. No system of 
    philosophy is complete without having attempted a solution 
    for this perennial problem, and more than one system has 
    suffered shipwreck in the attempt. Wang also was unable 
    to disregard it. Hsieh K'an, one of his favorite disciples, 
    was pulling grass out from among the flowers. "How diffi- 
    cult it is," he said, "to cultivate the good in Heaven and 
    on earth, and how hard it is to get rid of the evil !" Wang 
    said, "You should neither cultivate the good nor expel the 
    evil." A little later he continued, "This way of viewing 
    good and evil has its source in the body and thus is open 
    to mistakes." As Hsieh K'an was not able to comprehend, 
    he added : "The purpose of Heaven and earth in bringing 
    forth is even as in the instance of flowers and grass. In 
    what does it distinguish between good and evil? If you, 
    my disciple, take pleasure in seeing the flowers, then you 
    will consider flowers good and grass bad. If you wish to 
    use the grass you will, in turn, consider the grass good" 
    Hsieh K'an replied, "In that case there is neither good nor 
    evil, is there?" Wang answered, "The tranquility of the 
    principles of Heaven is a state in which there is neither 
    good nor evil, while the stirring of the passion-nature is 
    a state in which there is both good and evil." 29 
    
    For him there was only one real evil, and that consisted 
    
    "Ibid., Book 3, pp. 61 f. 
    "Ibid., Book 1, pp. 42! 
    
    
    
    WANG YANG MING, A CHINESE IDEALIST. 33 
    
    in exceeding or failing to realize nature. All other distinc- 
    tions between good and evil seemed to him to savor of arbi- 
    trariness and superficiality. The mind is by nature clear 
    and bright and the intuitive faculty, if given free play, will 
    develop to the utmost. Selfish desire and ceremoniousness 
    are things that obscure it and obstruct its smooth func- 
    tioning. If the mind in its natural condition is like a clear 
    bright mirror, then selfish desires and deeds are the dust 
    and spots that darken it and hinder it from reflecting 
    clearly. The mind of the sage allows no obscuration to 
    take place, but the mind of the ordinary man is subject to 
    all the evils that inhere in the selfish striving for gain and 
    fame. 30 
    
    As a remedy for evil he advocated that all obscuration 
    be removed from the mind and every obstruction be taken 
    away, so that it can function normally. To this end the 
    determination must be fixed and the purpose made sincere. 
    The mind must continually cherish the principles of 
    Heaven, for so long as it does this it is proceeding along 
    the line of nature. If the individual fails at the point of 
    making and keeping his purpose sincere, no amount of 
    striving to understand so-called external things will keep 
    the evil from sprouting, for this striving is itself a token 
    of selfishness. By removing all obscuration and every ob- 
    struction of selfishness, passion, pride and ceremoniousness 
    from the intuitive faculty, it is given perfect freedom to 
    develop naturally and normally. The teacher spoke to his 
    disciples saying, "Sirs, in your task of developing the mind, 
    you must not in the least hinder or force the development. 
    The student cannot leap over into the principles of the 
    sage. Rising, falling, advancing, receding, are naturally 
    the order of the task." 31 However, in all this the determi- 
    
    "Ibid., Book 4, p. 5. 
    * Ibid., Book 2, p. I*. 
    
    
    
    34 THE MONIST. 
    
    nation must be fixed and the purpose sincere. 32 There must 
    be absolute devotion to the intuitive faculty and unfailing 
    loyalty to nature. "Without sincerity there can be noth- 
    ing." 33 
    
    Frederick G. Henke. 
    Willamette University, Salem, Oregon. 
    
    "Ibid., Book i, p. 56I 
    
    " Doctrine of the Mean, Chap. 25, § 2.